Phosphorus is a mineral your body needs to help built bones and produce energy. You can get most of the phosphorus you need from the foods you eat like milk, chocolate, and eggs.

You may have heard the words “phosphorus” and “phosphate.” But you may be wondering what these terms mean and what they have to do with your diet.

Phosphorus is a mineral found in many foods like beer, cheese, beans, and fish. It’s also one of the most common substances in your everyday environment and in your body.

It plays an important role in the health of each cell in your body, as well as your:

  • kidneys
  • bones
  • muscles
  • blood vessels

Phosphates are a form of phosphorus. You can find phosphates in:

  • dish detergents
  • baking ingredients
  • processed cheeses

It’s also the drug form of phosphorus, and you can take it as a dietary supplement if you can’t get enough phosphorus naturally. Certain illnesses and diseases can prevent you from getting enough phosphorus.

Phosphorus works with calcium to help build bones. You need the right amount of both calcium and phosphorus for bone health.

Phosphorus also plays an important structural role in nucleic acids and cell membranes. It’s involved in the body’s energy production as well.

Your body absorbs less phosphorus when calcium levels are too high, and vice versa. You also need vitamin D to absorb phosphorus properly.

Insufficient phosphorus is referred to as hypophosphatemia. Hypophosphatemia occurs when phosphorus levels in your blood get too low. This causes your energy levels to drop. It can also cause:

  • muscle weakness
  • fatigue
  • a low tolerance for exercise

Insufficient phosphorus along with low levels of calcium and vitamin D can lead to weaker, softer bones over long periods of time. This causes joint and muscle pain.

Phosphorus levels are tightly controlled in your body. Low levels can be a sign of another disorder.

A high level of phosphates in your blood is called hyperphosphatemia. Some of this condition’s symptoms overlap with those of low phosphorus. These symptoms include:

  • joint pain
  • muscle pain
  • muscle weakness

People with high phosphorus levels can also experience itching and red eyes. Symptoms of more severe cases of high phosphorus may include severe:

  • constipation
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • diarrhea

Your doctor can help determine the cause of high or low phosphorus levels in your body, as well as your best course of treatment.

Doctors may prescribe phosphate binders in order to lower phosphorus levels. These are taken with meals and snacks and limit the amount of phosphorus that your body can absorb.

Lifestyle choices can help balance out high levels of phosphorus. You can try:

  • getting enough exercise
  • staying well-hydrated
  • eating a balanced, low-phosphorus diet

Finding foods with high phosphorus levels isn’t hard. A few examples include:

  • pork
  • cod
  • salmon
  • tuna

Good dairy sources include:

  • milk
  • chocolate
  • yogurt
  • eggnog
  • ricotta and American cheese
  • instant pudding

Whole grains, egg yolks, and lentils are also high in phosphorus. While phosphorus is naturally present in many foods, processed foods may contain large amounts of additives.

Almost all fresh fruits and vegetables are low in phosphorus. These foods are also an important part of your daily diet. Other foods that have very low levels of phosphorus include:

  • popcorn
  • saltines
  • cornflakes
  • bread
  • egg whites

Your kidneys help remove excess phosphorus from your blood, keeping your levels balanced. Your phosphorus levels can get too high when your kidneys aren’t working as expected. This can also cause your calcium levels to rise.

Dangerous calcium deposits can potentially form in your:

  • heart
  • blood vessels
  • eyes
  • lungs

People with kidney disease may need dialysis to help their kidneys clean out the excess phosphorus.

Phosphorus supplements and medications can be used in many ways. They have been proven to:

  • work as laxatives
  • treat urinary tract infections and urinary stones
  • treat low levels of the mineral in people with advanced malnutrition

Phosphorus supplements might also help with bone restoration and treating excessive levels of calcium in your body due to overactive parathyroid glands.

Phosphorus is integral to healthy bones and a healthy body. Sometimes health conditions such as kidney disease can affect the levels of phosphorus in your body.

Talk with your healthcare professional if you feel any symptoms of high or low phosphorus.