RSV can be transmitted by breathing in virus-containing respiratory droplets from someone who has RSV. It can also be spread by touching a surface or object that’s come in contact with the virus.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes a respiratory infection with symptoms like coughing, runny nose, and fever. Many times, RSV can be managed with at-home care and will go away in a week or two.
However, RSV has the potential to cause potentially serious complications in infants, young children, and older adults. According to the
- 58,000–80,000 hospitalizations in children under age 5
- 60,000–120,000 hospitalizations in adults ages 65 and older
RSV can be transmitted from one person to another. Knowing more about how it spreads can help prevent you from contracting RSV.
Is there a vaccine for RSV?
There are currently no vaccines for RSV, but they’re being developed. Vaccines from GSK and Pfizer are currently waiting for FDA approval following positive clinical trial results on people over 60. Moderna also announced promising clinical trial results, and clinical trials for a potential RSV vaccine from Janssen are underway. Approvals are expected in 2023.
RSV can be transmitted in the following ways:
- breathing in virus-containing respiratory droplets when a person with the virus sneezes or coughs
- having direct contact with the virus, for instance by:
- touching a surface or object that someone with RSV has come into contact with, and then touching your face
- kissing the face of an infant or child that has RSV
Once you’ve contracted the virus, it typically takes
Is RSV contagious?
RSV is contagious. This means that it can be spread from one person to another.
You’re typically contagious with RSV for between
Previous research in 2016 estimates that one person with RSV may potentially transmit the virus to about three other people. However, this number can vary based on various biological, environmental, and social factors.
Does RSV spread better in certain environments?
RSV is seasonal. In the United States, the number of RSV cases typically starts to increase in the fall, peaks during winter and begins to taper off in the spring.
How long can RSV last on surfaces?
RSV can be present on surfaces and objects. If you touch these objects and then touch your face, you can contract the virus.
How long RSV lasts outside of the body depends on the surface it’s on as well as the temperature and humidity. A
- 3–30 hours on hard surfaces, like countertops and tables
- less than 1 hour on porous surfaces, such as paper and clothing
- less than 1 hour on your hands
It’s not possible to prevent all cases of RSV. In fact,
However, there are steps you can take to reduce the risk that you or your child will come down with a case of RSV. For instance, you can:
- wash your hands frequently with soap and warm water
- avoid touching your face if your hands aren’t clean
- avoid sharing eating utensils, drinking glasses, or personal items like toothbrushes
- limit close contact with people who are sick
- avoid large crowds of people, especially in areas that aren’t well ventilated
If you currently have RSV
If you or your child are sick with RSV, there are also steps you can take to prevent spreading the virus to others, such as:
- washing your hands frequently with soap and warm water, especially after sneezing or coughing
- covering sneezes and coughs with a tissue or the crook of your elbow
- regularly disinfecting high-touch surfaces in your home, such as countertops, light switches, and door knobs
- limiting contact with others, where possible, until you’ve recovered
There are currently no vaccines for RSV, but they’re in development.
Vaccines from Pfizer and GSK for RSV prevention in people ages 60 and older are currently under priority review with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Results from clinical trials were promising.
In January 2023, Moderna announced promising phase 3 clinical trial results and the intention to submit for approval in the first half of 2023. Clinical trials for a vaccine for adults from Janssen are ongoing.
The common symptoms of RSV include:
- coughing or sneezing
- runny nose
- reduced appetite
- irritability or lethargy (in infants)
When to get medical care
Most cases of RSV can be managed at home by getting rest, staying hydrated, and using over-the-counter medications to help ease symptoms.
In some situations, RSV can become serious and potentially life threatening. Seek immediate care if you or your child are experiencing:
- symptoms that don’t improve or start to get worse with at-home treatment
- difficulty breathing
- skin, lips, or nails that are pale, gray, or blue in color
- reduced alertness
- trouble staying awake or difficulty waking up
RSV can lead to serious complications, especially in higher-risk groups like infants, young children, and older adults. These complications can make it very difficult to breathe and include:
- Bronchiolitis: inflammation of the small airways in the lungs
- Pneumonia: when infection inflames the tiny air sacs in your lungs
People who experience complications due to RSV may need to be hospitalized to receive IV fluids and supplemental oxygen. In very severe situations, mechanical ventilation may be necessary.
Timely diagnosis and treatment are very important for those at a high risk of complications from RSV. Never hesitate to seek care if you or your child develop concerning symptoms that may be due to RSV.
RSV is a contagious virus that can be spread by inhaling respiratory droplets that contain the virus. You can also get it through contact with surfaces, like door knobs or countertops, where RSV is present. In the United States, RSV infections peak in the winter months.
While not all cases of RSV can be prevented, you can take steps to reduce your risk of contracting the virus. This includes things like frequent handwashing and avoiding close contact with people who have the virus.
RSV can turn serious, especially for babies, young children, and older adults. Because of this, it’s important for those at high risk of RSV complications to get prompt diagnosis and treatment if they develop symptoms.