Pain is the most common symptom of a gallbladder problem. It can be mild and intermittent or quite severe and frequent. It may begin to radiate to other areas of the body, including the back and chest.

This pain will often be accompanied by other symptoms. Read on to learn more about the gallbladder and how to identify a problem.

Your gallbladder is a 4-inch, pear-shaped organ. It’s positioned under your liver in the upper-right section of your abdomen.

The gallbladder stores bile, a combination of fluids, fat, and cholesterol. Bile helps break down fat from food in your intestine. The gallbladder delivers bile into the small intestine. This allows fat-soluble vitamins and nutrients to be more easily absorbed into the bloodstream.

Gallbladder and bile duct conditions share similar symptoms. These include:

  • Pain: It usually occurs in the mid to upper-right section of your abdomen.
  • Nausea or vomiting: Chronic gallbladder disease may cause digestive problems, such as acid reflux and gas.
  • Fever or chills: This may indicate infection and should be treated immediately.
  • Chronic diarrhea: Defined as loose or watery stools that occur more than three or more times per day and last for 4 weeks or more.
  • Jaundice: Marked by yellow-tinted skin, it may be a symptom of a block or stone in the common bile duct.
  • Stool abnormality: Lighter-colored stool is a possible symptom of a common bile duct block.
  • Discolored urine: Dark urine is a potential symptom of a common bile duct block.

Any disease that affects your gallbladder is considered a gallbladder disease. Some of these gallbladder problems, such as gallstones, are interconnected, and having one can, in time, cause or increase the risk of developing another.

Gallbladder disease without stones, also called acalculous gallbladder disease, can occur. In this case, you may experience symptoms commonly associated with gallstones without having stones.

The following conditions are all gallbladder diseases.


Cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder. It can be acute (short term) or chronic (long term).

Acute cholecystitis typically occurs if you have gallstones but can also occur if you have a severe infection. You may experience sharp pain or dull cramp.

Chronic cholecystitis refers to repeated attacks of gallbladder inflammation that can last or repeat for weeks to months. It can occur for multiple reasons that may include:

  • infection
  • blockage
  • buildup of cholesterol in the gallbladder, such as during pregnancy or following rapid weight loss
  • decreased blood supply to the gallbladder due to diabetes
  • tumors in the liver, pancreas, or gallbladder

Porcelain gallbladder

Porcelain gallbladder occurs when calcium deposits stiffen the gallbladder walls, making them rigid.

This may be more likely to occur if you’ve experienced chronic gallbladder inflammation. Some types of calcification can also increase your risk of developing gallbladder cancer.

Common bile duct infection

An infection may develop if the common bile duct is obstructed. Obstruction typically occurs due to gallstones but can also have other causes that include:

  • bile duct inflammation
  • trauma or injury
  • an abnormal narrowing of the duct
  • cysts
  • parasites
  • enlarged lymph nodes
  • pancreatitis
  • tumors that have reached the liver, gallbladder, pancreas, or bile ducts
  • infections, including hepatitis
  • liver damage, including scarring of the liver (cirrhosis)


Gallstones are small, hardened deposits that form in the gallbladder. These deposits can develop and go undetected for years.

Many people have gallstones and aren’t aware of them. They eventually cause problems, including inflammation, infection, and pain.

Other gallbladder problems or complications related to gallstones include:

  • common bile duct stones
  • abscess of the gallbladder
  • gallstone ileus
  • perforated gallbladder

Gallstones can grow to several centimeters. Some people develop only one gallstone, while others develop several. As the gallstones grow, they can block the channels that lead out of the gallbladder.

Most gallstones are formed from cholesterol found in the gallbladder’s bile. Another type of gallstone, a pigment stone, is formed from calcium bilirubinate. Calcium bilirubinate is a chemical produced when the body breaks down red blood cells. This type of stone is rarer.

Explore this interactive 3-D diagram to learn more about the gallbladder and gallstones.

Common bile duct stones (choledocholithiasis)

When gallstones occur in the common bile duct, it’s known as choledocholithiasis. Bile is ejected from the gallbladder, passed through small tubes, and deposited in the common bile duct. It then enters the small intestine.

In most cases, common bile duct stones are gallstones that develop in the gallbladder and then pass into the bile duct. This type of stone is called a secondary common bile duct stone.

Sometimes stones form in the common bile duct itself. These stones are called primary common bile duct stones. This rare type of stone is more likely to cause an infection than a secondary stone.

Abscess of the gallbladder

A small percentage of people with gallstones may also develop pus in the gallbladder. This condition is called empyema.

Pus is a combination of white blood cells, bacteria, and dead tissue. The development of pus, also known as an abscess, causes severe abdominal pain. If empyema isn’t diagnosed and treated, it can become life threatening as the infection spreads to other parts of the body.

Gallstone ileus

A gallstone may travel into the intestine and block it. This condition, called gallstone ileus, is rare but can be fatal. It’s most common among individuals who are over age 65.

Perforated gallbladder

If you wait too long to seek treatment for gallstones, they can lead to a perforated gallbladder. This is a life threatening condition. A dangerous, widespread abdominal infection may develop if the tear isn’t detected.

Gallbladder polyps

These are abnormal tissue growths that may be benign. Larger polyps may need to be surgically removed before they develop into cancer or cause other problems.

Polyps can cause obstruction of the gallbladder.

Gallbladder cancer

Although rare, gallbladder cancer can spread quickly if not detected and treated.

You may be more likely to develop it if you have chronic inflammation in your gallbladder or bile duct problems.

A doctor may discuss your medical history, symptoms, and family history. They may also ask about your diet and nutrition. Then, they typically perform a physical exam to locate pain in the abdomen and order a blood test.

Results from a blood test may indicate an infection or inflammation in the gallbladder, bile ducts, pancreas, or even the liver.

Imaging tests can help identify gallstones in your gallbladder. Imaging tests can include:

  • Ultrasound: This test is considered the best imaging test for finding gallstones.
  • Computed tomography (CT) scan: This combination of X-rays and technology can show gallstones and reveal complications such as blockage of the gallbladder or bile ducts.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): This test shows detailed images of your body’s organs and can show gallstones in your biliary tract ducts.
  • Cholescintigraphy: This test can show gallbladder abnormalities and blockages in the bile ducts.
  • Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP): This more invasive procedure is often used to address an existing problem, such as a gallstone stuck in the common bile duct.

Once the doctor has performed any necessary tests, they may make a diagnosis, followed by a recommended course of treatment.

If a doctor discovers stones in your gallbladder and you experience symptoms, you might have gallbladder removal surgery. Although gallbladder removal surgery is safe, any surgery has risks. It’s important to speak with your doctor about:

  • the surgery
  • typical recovery
  • potential complications

Typically, gallstones without symptoms do not need surgery.

Potential complications of gallbladder removal can include:

  • infection that requires antibiotics
  • bile leakage, though rare
  • injuries to the bile duct, intestine, bowel, or blood vessels that may require additional surgery

Gallbladder removal surgery isn’t the only way to treat a gallbladder problem. Depending on your issue and diagnosis, treatment may include:

  • over-the-counter (OTC) pain relievers, such as ibuprofen (Aleve, Motrin)
  • lithotripsy, a procedure that uses shock waves to break apart gallstones and other masses
  • surgery to remove gallstones

You may also find pain relief with natural remedies, such as exercise and a heated compress.

If you’re experiencing gallbladder problems, you may find it beneficial to adjust your diet. In addition, if you have gallbladder removal surgery, a doctor may advise dietary changes both before (pre-op) and after surgery (post-op).

Foods that may aggravate gallbladder disease include:

Instead, try to build your diet around:

Symptoms of a gallbladder problem may come and go. However, you’re more likely to develop a gallbladder problem if you’ve had one before.

While gallbladder problems are rarely deadly, they should still be treated. You can prevent gallbladder problems from worsening by getting medical care. Symptoms that should prompt you to seek immediate medical attention include:

  • severe, frequent, or constant abdominal pain
  • jaundice
  • pale stools
  • sweating, low grade fever, or chills, if they’re accompanied by the above symptoms

How do you know if something is wrong with your gallbladder?

Gallbladder conditions often have similar symptoms, including pain on the mid and upper-right sides of your abdomen, gas and nausea, chills and low grade fever, persistent loose stools that are paler than usual, yellow tint in your skin or eyes, and dark urine. The pain may radiate to the back or right shoulder blade. It often develops after a heavy meal and may last 30 minutes to several hours. Only a healthcare professional can provide an accurate diagnosis.

What are the 10 symptoms of a gallbladder attack?

A common symptom of gallbladder inflammation or colic is a sudden and sharp pain that doesn’t decrease as you move or adjust posture. The pain may last for at least 30 minutes and be localized on the right upper side of your abdomen, often radiating to the back or right shoulder. If the pain results from gallbladder inflammation, you may experience nausea, chills, and vomiting (often bile). It requires medical attention.

What are the five Fs of gallbladder disease?

The five Fs of gallstone disease refers to a mnemonic used in medicine courses to help students remember contributing factors for related conditions. It’s a controversial method because some people believe it promotes weight stigma and may lead to missing other possible causes of abdominal pain in females. The five Fs stand for fair, fat, female, fertile, and forty. The idea behind the mnemonic is that non-Hispanic white females over the age of 40 who had overweight or obesity and one or more children, may be more likely to have gallstone disease when experiencing persistent abdominal pain.

What does an inflamed gallbladder feel like?

Every body is different, but inflammation in the gallbladder may feel like a sudden and sharp pain in the middle or right side of your abdomen. You may experience cramping, nausea and vomiting, fever, and chills. It’s possible that the pain increases over time and moves to other parts of the body, like your right shoulder or upper back.

The most common indication that you may be experiencing a problem with your gallbladder is pain in the mid to upper-right section of your abdomen.

Gallstones may be responsible for the pain, and depending on the severity of your symptoms and imaging results, a doctor may recommend gallbladder removal surgery.