Fibroids are abnormal growths in the uterus. They’re also called uterine fibroids, myomas, and leiomyomas.
Fibroids aren’t cancerous or life threatening, but they can sometimes cause complications and health problems.
Fibroids form in and around the uterine walls. They’re made of muscle and other tissues. They may be as tiny as a seed or grow larger than a tennis ball. You may have multiple fibroids or just one.
Doctors don’t know exactly what causes fibroids. Having overweight or obesity increases your risk, as does having low levels of some types of nutrients.
Fibroids can cause symptoms and complications such as:
- heavy menstrual bleeding
- difficulty getting pregnant
While foods can’t treat or prevent fibroids, your daily diet and lifestyle may play a role in reducing your risk. Diet can help balance hormones that may trigger these growths. Certain foods may also help ease fibroid symptoms.
There are a number of changes you can make that might help reduce your risk for fibroids.
Follow a Mediterranean diet
Add plenty of fresh and cooked green vegetables, fresh fruit, legumes, and fish to your plate. A Mediterranean diet is one way to do this. Research shows that eating these foods regularly may help lower your risk for fibroids. On the other hand, eating beef, ham, lamb, and other red meat may raise your risk.
Cut back on alcohol
Drinking any type of alcohol may increase your risk for fibroids. This can happen because alcohol raises the level of hormones needed for fibroids to grow. Alcohol may also trigger inflammation.
One study found that women who drank one or more beers a day increased their risk by more than 50 percent. Avoid or limit alcohol to help reduce your risk.
Estrogen is a hormone important for healthy fertility in both women and men. However, too much estrogen
Many treatments for fibroids work by lowering estrogen levels. Other ways to balance estrogen levels include:
Losing weight. Obesity and excess weight increase the risk for fibroids. Fat cells make more estrogen, so losing weight may help prevent or slow the growth of fibroids.
Avoiding hormone-disrupting chemicals. Natural and synthetic chemicals can throw off your endocrine balance, raising estrogen levels. These chemicals can leach into your body through skin and food. Avoid or limit coming into contact with chemicals found in:
- plastics such as BPA
- nonstick coatings on cookware
- fire retardants
- some personal care products
Lower blood pressure
Research shows that a high number of women with severe fibroids also have high blood pressure. More research is needed to find out if there’s a link.
Balancing blood pressure is vital for your overall health. Try these tips:
- Avoid added salt. Flavor food with herbs and other spices instead.
- Limit high-sodium processed and packaged foods.
- Check your blood pressure daily with a home monitor.
- Exercise regularly.
- Lose weight, especially around the waist.
- Avoid or limit alcohol.
- Increase potassium by eating a majority of plants at each meal.
- Quit smoking and avoid secondhand smoke.
- If you have high blood pressure, take medication as prescribed.
- See your doctor for regular checkups.
Get enough vitamin D
Vitamin D may help reduce your risk of fibroids by almost
Supplements can help raise your levels, along with foods such as:
- egg yolks
- fortified milk, cheese, and dairy products
- fortified cereals
- fortified orange juice
- fatty fish such as salmon, tuna, and mackerel
- cod liver oil
A note about smoking and diet
Eating brightly colored fruits and vegetables is good for your general health. Consuming a variety of red, yellow, and orange foods will provide rich antioxidants. Dark greens are also nutrient dense and will provide healthful benefits. These nutrients may help protect you from disease, including some cancers.
However, a study found that beta carotene found in red, yellow and orange foods didn’t lower the risk for fibroids. In smokers, beta carotene may even increase risk. Further research is needed on why this might happen. In any case, smoking is harmful to your health and may increase your risk of fibroids.
Diet alone can’t treat fibroids. However, a balanced diet may also help ease some fibroid symptoms and complications. Certain foods may help slow fibroid growth in some cases.
Fiber-rich foods aid weight loss and balance hormones. They also help to keep blood sugar levels steady. For these reasons, fiber may help prevent and slow the growth of fibroids. Add these whole foods to your diet:
- cooked and raw vegetables
- cooked, raw, and dried fruit
- whole grain bread and pasta
- cruciferous vegetables
Potassium helps to counter the effects of salt to
- collard greens
- oat bran
Add dairy products such as yogurt and full-fat cheese to your diet. Dairy is rich in calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium. These minerals may help prevent fibroids and slow their growth. Fortified milk also contains vitamin D.
Green tea contains several antioxidants. A
Sugary foods and simple carbohydrates
Avoid refined carbs and added sugars such as:
- table sugar
- corn syrup
- high fructose corn syrup
- white bread, rice, pasta, and flour
- soda and sugary drinks
- fruit juice
- potato chips
- packaged energy bars
Some foods contain natural ingredients that mimic the estrogen in the body, called phytoestrogens. Other foods have added hormones or trigger your body to make more estrogen.
Some of these foods may have protective effects when consumed in small to moderate amounts, but have negative effects when consumed in
- red meat from sources that include added hormones
- soy beans
- soy milk
- flax seed
Eating a balanced diet and maintaining a healthy weight is important for your overall health. You may not be able to prevent fibroids, no matter what precautions you take. See your doctor if you think you may be at risk or if you experience any changes in your health.
If you have fibroids, your doctor will determine the best type of treatment. Healthy diet and lifestyle changes are the first step to treating fibroids and relieving symptoms.
Following a diet plan is critical even if you have surgery, drug therapy, or other treatment for fibroids.
Your doctor may also recommend natural remedies, alternative pain relief, stress management, and supplements to help ease symptoms. Talk with your doctor and dietitian about the best diet plan for you and other ways to prevent and reduce the effects of fibroids.