Stress is a term you’re likely familiar with. You may also know exactly what stress feels like. However, what does stress exactly mean? This body response is natural in the face of danger, and it’s what helped our ancestors cope with occasional hazards. Short-term (acute) stress isn’t likely to cause any major health concerns.

But the story’s different with long-term (chronic) stress. When you’re under stress for days — or even weeks or months — you’re at risk for numerous health effects. Such risks may extend to your body and mind, as well as your emotional well-being. Stress may even lead to an inflammatory response in the body, which has been associated with numerous chronic health issues.

Learn more facts about stress, as well as some of the possible contributing factors. Knowing the signs and causes of stress can help you treat it.

1. Stress is a hormonal response from the body

This response all starts with a part of your brain called the hypothalamus. When you’re stressed, the hypothalamus sends signals throughout your nervous system and to your kidneys.

In turn, your kidneys release stress hormones. These include adrenaline and cortisol.

2. Women appear more prone to stress than men

Women are more likely to experience more physical signs of stressed compared to their male counterparts.

This doesn’t mean that men don’t experience stress. Instead, men are more likely to try to escape from the stress and not exhibit any signs.

3. Stress can overburden your mind with incessant worries

You may be flooded with thoughts about the future and your daily to-do list.

Rather than focusing on one item at a time though, these thoughts bombard your mind all at once, and it’s difficult to escape them.

4. You may feel jittery from stress

Your fingers may shake, and your body might feel off-balance. Sometimes dizziness can occur. These effects are linked to hormonal releases — for example, adrenaline can cause a surge of jittery energy throughout your body.

5. Stress can make you feel hot

This is caused by a rise in blood pressure. You may get hot in situations where you’re nervous too, such as when you have to give a presentation.

6. Being stressed can make you sweat

Stress-related sweat is usually a follow-up to excessive body heat from stress. You might sweat from your forehead, armpits, and groin area.

7. Digestive problems may occur

Stress can make your digestive system go haywire, causing diarrhea, stomach upset, and excessive urination.

8. Stress can make you irritable, and even angry

This is due to an accumulation of stress’s effects in the mind. It can also occur when stress affects the way you sleep.

9. Over time, stress can make you feel sad

Constant overwhelming stress can take its toll, and bring down your overall outlook on life. Feelings of guilt are possible too.

10. Long-term stress can increase your risk of mental health disabilities

According to the National Institute of Mental Health, anxiety and depression are the most common.

11. Insomnia may be stress-related

When you can’t quiet down racing thoughts at night, sleep may be hard to come by.

12. Daytime sleepiness can happen when you’re stressed

This may be related to insomnia, but sleepiness may also develop from simply being exhausted from chronic stress.

13. Chronic headaches are sometimes attributed to stress

These are often called tension headaches. The headaches may crop up every time you encounter stress, or they may be ongoing in cases of long-term stress.

14. With stress, you may even find it difficult to breathe

Shortness of breath is common with stress, and it can then turn into nervousness.

People with social anxiety often have shortness of breath when they encounter stressful situations. The actual breath issues are related to tightness in your breathing muscles. As the muscles get more tired, your shortness of breath may worsen. In extreme cases, this may lead to a panic attack.

15. Your skin is sensitive to stress too

Acne breakouts can occur in some people, while others might have itchy rashes. Both symptoms are related to an inflammatory response from stress.

16. Frequent stress decreases your immune system

In turn, you’ll likely experience more frequent colds and flus, even when it isn’t the season for these illnesses.

17. In women, stress may mess up your regular menstrual cycles

Some women may miss their period as a result of being stressed.

18. Stress may affect your libido

One study found that women reported feeling less interested in sex when they were anxious. Their bodies also reacted differently to sexual stimulation when they were anxious.

19. Chronic stress can cause substance abuse

People who experience a lot of stress are more likely to smoke cigarettes and misuse drugs and alcohol. Depending on these substances for stress relief can cause other health problems.

20. Stress increases your risk for type 2 diabetes

This is associated with cortisol releases that can increase blood glucose (sugar) production.

21. Ulcers may get worse

Although stress doesn’t directly cause ulcers, it can aggravate any existing ulcers you may already have.

22. Weight gain from chronic stress is possible

Excessive cortisol releases from adrenal glands above the kidneys may lead to fat accumulation. Stress-related eating habits, such as eating junk food or binge eating, may also lead to excess pounds.

23. High blood pressure develops from chronic stress

Chronic stress and an unhealthy lifestyle will cause your blood pressure to rise. Over time, high blood pressure can cause permanent damage to your heart.

24. Stress is bad for your heart

Abnormal heartbeats and chest pain are symptoms that can be caused by stress.

25. Past experiences can cause stress later in life

This could be a flashback or a more significant reminder related to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Women are up to three times more likely to have PTSD than men.

26. Your genes can dictate the way you handle stress

If you have a family member with overactive responses to stress, you might experience the same.

27. Poor nutrition can make your stress worse

If you eat a lot of junk or processed foods, the excess fat, sugar, and sodium increase inflammation.

28. A lack of exercise is stress-inducing

In addition to being good for your heart, exercise also helps your brain make serotonin. This brain chemical can help you maintain a healthy outlook on stress, while warding off anxiety and depression.

29. Relationships play a key role in your daily stress levels

A lack of support at home can make stress worse, while not taking time off with your friends and family can have similar effects.

30. Knowing how to manage stress can benefit your entire life

According to the Mayo Clinic, people who manage stress tend to live longer and healthier lives.

The bottom line

Everyone experiences occasional stress. Because our lives are increasingly jam-packed with obligations, such as school, work, and raising kids, it can seem like a stress-free day is impossible.

Given all the negative effects long-term stress can have on your health, though, it’s worth making stress relief a priority. (Over time, you’ll likely be happier, too!).

If stress is getting in the way of your health and happiness, talk to your doctor about ways you can help manage it. Aside from diet, exercise, and relaxation techniques, they may also recommend medications and therapies.