If you have certain heart problems, your doctor may recommend metoprolol oral tablet for you.

It’s a prescription drug that’s available in these two forms, which are described in more detail below:

  • immediate-release tablets, called metoprolol tartrate
  • extended-release tablets, called metoprolol succinate

Both of these forms of metoprolol can be used to:

Additionally, metoprolol succinate is used to treat heart failure. And metoprolol tartrate is used to treat a heart attack or prevent one from occurring in the future.

Both metoprolol succinate and metoprolol tartrate can be used in adults. In addition, metoprolol succinate can be used in some children with high blood pressure.

Metoprolol oral tablet basics

Metoprolol tartrate and metoprolol succinate both come as tablets that you’ll take by mouth.

Metoprolol tartrate is an immediate-release tablet, which means it works right away after you take it. Metoprolol succinate, on the other hand, is an extended-release tablet. It works consistently over a period of time after you take it.

The active ingredient in both metoprolol tartrate and metoprolol succinate is metoprolol, which is classified as a beta-blocker. Both forms of metoprolol are available as a brand-name and generic medication.

To learn more about the similarities and differences between metoprolol tartrate and metoprolol succinate, see this article. Read on to learn about metoprolol succinate and metoprolol tartrate’s side effects, how they’re taken, and more.

Note: Metoprolol tartrate also comes in an injectable form that’s given as an injection in your vein and is used only to treat an acute (sudden) heart attack. Metoprolol succinate is also available as a capsule that’s taken by mouth. Only oral tablets of metoprolol succinate and metoprolol tartrate are described in this article. If you’d like to learn about metoprolol’s other forms, talk with your doctor or pharmacist.

Metoprolol oral tablet brand-name versions

Metoprolol succinate oral tablet is available as the brand name drug Toprol XL. And metoprolol tartrate oral tablet is available as the brand-name drug Lopressor.

Note: Different forms of metoprolol succinate or metoprolol tartrate are available in other brand-name versions. To learn about these other versions, talk with your doctor or pharmacist.

Metoprolol oral tablet is a generic drug, which means it’s an exact copy of the active drug in a brand-name medication. The brand-name medication that metoprolol succinate oral tablet is based on is called Toprol XL. The brand-name medication that metoprolol tartrate oral tablet is based on is called Lopressor.

Generic drugs are thought to be as safe and effective as the brand name drug they’re based on. In general, generics usually cost less than brand-name drugs.

If you’d like to know more about using Lopressor or Toprol XL instead of metoprolol tartrate or metoprolol succinate oral tablets, talk with your doctor. And see this Healthline article to learn more about the differences between generic and brand-name drugs.

Like most drugs, metoprolol oral tablets may cause mild or serious side effects. The lists below describe some of the more common side effects that this drug may cause. These lists don’t include all possible side effects.

Keep in mind that side effects of a drug can depend on:

  • your age
  • other health conditions you have
  • other medications you may be taking

Your doctor or pharmacist can tell you more about the potential side effects of metoprolol oral tablets. They can also suggest ways to help reduce side effects.

Mild side effects

Here’s a short list of some of the mild side effects that metoprolol oral tablets can cause. To learn about other mild side effects, talk with your doctor or pharmacist, or read the prescribing information for metoprolol tartrate and metoprolol succinate.

Mild side effects of metoprolol oral tablets that have been reported include:

Mild side effects of many drugs may go away within a few days or a couple of weeks. But if they become bothersome, talk with your doctor or pharmacist.

Serious side effects

Serious side effects from metoprolol oral tablets can occur, but they aren’t common. If you have serious side effects from metoprolol oral tablets, call your doctor right away. However, if you think you’re having a medical emergency, you should call 911 or your local emergency number.

Serious side effects of metoprolol oral tablets that have been reported include:

* For more information on this side effect, see the “Side effect focus” section below.

Side effect focus

Learn more about some of the side effects metoprolol oral tablets may cause.

Boxed warning

Metoprolol oral tablets have a boxed warning. A boxed warning is a serious warning from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Heart problems if metoprolol is suddenly stopped. You should not suddenly stop taking metoprolol oral tablets.

In some rare cases, suddenly stopping beta-blockers has caused worsening symptoms of angina (a type of chest pain), and even heart attacks. Keep in mind that metoprolol is a beta-blocker.

What might help

If you’re stopping treatment with metoprolol oral tablets, your doctor will likely recommend slowly decreasing your dosage. They’ll probably have you taper off the drug over a period of a few weeks.

Your doctor will also monitor you while your dosage is being decreased. This allows them to be sure that your heart problems aren’t worsening.

If you’re concerned about heart problems that may worsen if you stop taking metoprolol, talk with your doctor.

Side effects in older people

In studies, side effects of metoprolol oral tablets in older adults weren’t different from those in younger people. But older adults may have an increased risk for side effects from metoprolol. With age, your kidneys and liver work slower in eliminating drugs from your body.

Because of this, older people may have more metoprolol in their bodies over a longer period. And this may increase their risk for side effects, such as dizziness or feeling sleepy. In older adults, these side effects may be especially dangerous because they can increase the risk of falls.

Older adults may also have decreased heart function or other medical conditions that can increase their risk of side effects with metoprolol.

What might help

If you’re an older adult, your doctor may recommend that you start taking a low dosage of metoprolol. Then, your doctor can adjust your dosage so that it’s effective, yet causes you the least amount of side effects.

By starting with a low dose of metoprolol, your doctor can decrease your risk for serious side effects of the drug.

If you have questions about side effects of metoprolol that may occur in older people, talk with your doctor.

Low blood pressure

It’s possible that metoprolol oral tablets may cause low blood pressure. In fact, low blood pressure is one of the most common side effects of this drug.

When you’re taking metoprolol oral tablets, you should be aware of symptoms of low blood pressure. This is important so that if you have low blood pressure, you can treat it. In some cases, low blood pressure can be serious.

Some symptoms of low blood pressure include:

What might help

If you have symptoms of low blood pressure, see your doctor right away. They’ll be able to help increase your blood pressure to a safe level. They may also recommend decreasing your dosage of metoprolol so that your blood pressure doesn’t become too low again.

If you have more questions or concerns about low blood pressure while you’re taking metoprolol, talk with your doctor.

Allergic reaction

Some people may have an allergic reaction to metoprolol oral tablets.

Symptoms of a mild allergic reaction can include:

  • skin rash
  • itchiness
  • flushing (temporary warmth, redness, or deepening of skin color)

A more severe allergic reaction is rare but possible. Symptoms of a severe allergic reaction can include swelling under your skin, typically in your eyelids, lips, hands, or feet. They can also include swelling of your tongue, mouth, or throat, which can cause trouble breathing.

Call your doctor right away if you have an allergic reaction to metoprolol oral tablets. But if you think you’re having a medical emergency, call 911 or your local emergency number.

Your doctor will explain how you should take metoprolol oral tablets. They’ll also explain how much to take and how often. Be sure to follow your doctor’s instructions. Below are commonly used dosages, but always take the dosage your doctor prescribes.

Taking metoprolol oral tablet

You’ll take metoprolol oral tablets by mouth. They’re available in two forms:

  • immediate-release tablets, called metoprolol tartrate (Lopressor)
  • extended-release tablets, called metoprolol succinate (Toprol XL)

Immediate-release forms work as soon as you take them. Extended-release forms work consistently over a period of time after you take them.

Metoprolol tartrate is available in these strengths:

  • 25 milligram (mg)
  • 37.5 mg
  • 50 mg
  • 75 mg
  • 100 mg

And metoprolol succinate is available in these strengths:

  • 25 mg
  • 50 mg
  • 100 mg
  • 200 mg

Dosage

How often you’ll take metoprolol depends on:

  • which form of the drug you’re taking
  • the condition you’re treating

If you’re taking immediate-release metoprolol oral tablets, you may take them once or twice daily. If you’re taking extended-release metoprolol oral tablets, you’ll take them once daily.

For treating a heart attack, you may start taking metoprolol in the hospital. You’ll usually receive the drug as an injection into your vein when you first start it for heart attack treatment. Then, your doctor will switch you to the oral tablet form of the drug.

For treating heart failure, you’ll start taking metoprolol after you’ve taken other drugs for your condition.

Over time, your doctor will adjust your dosage of metoprolol to the dosage that works best for you.

Because metoprolol tartrate is usually taken twice each day, it should be taken in the morning and at night. But metoprolol succinate is taken only once each day. So you can take it either in the morning or at night. Be sure to take the drug at about the same time or times each day. This way the medication will be most effective for you.

Note: It’s important that you take metoprolol exactly as your doctor has prescribed it, regardless of the form of metoprolol you’re prescribed. Do not suddenly stop taking metoprolol without first talking with your doctor. Suddenly stopping it can cause very serious side effects, including worsening chest pain and even heart attack. In fact, metoprolol oral tablets have a boxed warning for this risk. For more information, see the “What are metoprolol oral tablet’s side effects?” section above.

Children’s dosage

The dosage of metoprolol for children with high blood pressure depends on the child’s body weight. Your doctor will recommend the dosage that’s right for your child.

Taking metoprolol oral tablet with other drugs

In many cases, your doctor may recommend that you take metoprolol with other drugs for your condition.

For example, doctors may prescribe multiple medications to manage blood pressure. It’s possible that for high blood pressure, you’ll take metoprolol along with another blood pressure medication.

Examples of other blood pressure medications that may be given include:

Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for your condition. They’ll recommend if you should take metoprolol oral tablets together with other drugs.

Questions about taking metoprolol oral tablet

Below are some questions related to taking metoprolol oral tablets.

  • What if I miss a dose of metoprolol oral tablets? If you miss a dose of metoprolol oral tablets, skip the missed dose. Then take your next dose when it’s due. Never take two doses at once to make up for a missed dose.
  • Will I need to use metoprolol oral tablets long term? Yes. If metoprolol is an effective treatment option for you, your doctor will likely recommend that you take it long term.
  • Can metoprolol oral tablets be chewed, crushed, or split? You should not chew or crush either form of metoprolol oral tablets. This is because chewing or crushing them may change the way they work in your body. If you have trouble swallowing your metoprolol tablets, the tablets can be split on their score line. (This is a line imprinted across each tablet.) You should swallow whole tablets or half tablets, without chewing or crushing them.
  • Should I take metoprolol oral tablets with food? Yes, you should take doses of metoprolol with food or right after you’ve had a meal.
  • How long do metoprolol oral tablets take to work? Metoprolol oral tablets will begin working as soon as you take them. But in some cases, it may be a few weeks before you see the full benefits from taking metoprolol oral tablets. If you don’t notice a difference in your condition after starting metoprolol, discuss this with your doctor. But never stop taking metoprolol oral tablets without first talking with your doctor.
Questions for your doctor

You may have questions about metoprolol oral tablets and your treatment plan. It’s important to discuss all your concerns with your doctor.

Here are a few tips that might help guide your discussion:

  • Before your appointment, write down questions like:
    • How will metoprolol oral tablets affect my body, mood, or lifestyle?
  • Bring someone with you to your appointment if doing so will help you feel more comfortable.
  • If you don’t understand something related to your condition or treatment, ask your doctor to explain it to you.

Remember, your doctor and other healthcare professionals are available to help you. And they want you to get the best care possible. So don’t be afraid to ask questions or offer feedback on your treatment.

Find answers to some commonly asked questions about metoprolol oral tablets.

Is metoprolol used for anxiety or Afib? If so, what’s the dosage for these conditions?

Metoprolol is not approved to treat anxiety or atrial fibrillation (Afib). But in some cases, your doctor may recommend that you take metoprolol for these conditions. This is called off-label use. (With off-label use, a medication is prescribed for a condition that’s different than what it’s approved to treat.)

Although metoprolol isn’t approved to treat anxiety, beta-blockers may help reduce symptoms of anxiety. Keep in mind that metoprolol is a beta-blocker. One review stated that beta-blockers may be prescribed off-label for anxiety and social anxiety.

In addition, metoprolol is being studied as a treatment for Afib. (Afib is a condition that causes an irregular heart rhythm.)

At this time, metoprolol isn’t approved to treat anxiety or Afib. Because the drug isn’t approved for these uses, there aren’t any recommended dosages for them.

If your doctor recommends that you take metoprolol off-label for your condition, they’ll recommend the best dosage for you.

Is metoprolol a beta-blocker, ACE inhibitor, or diuretic?

Metoprolol belongs to the group of drugs called beta-blockers. Like metoprolol, other drugs called angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and diuretics can be used to treat certain heart conditions.

In some cases, your doctor may recommend that you take metoprolol along with an ACE inhibitor or diuretic.

An easy way to tell which medications are beta-blockers is to look at the last few letters of the generic drug’s name. Beta-blocker names all end in “lol.” Here’s a list of some examples of beta-blockers:

  • metoprolol (Toprol XL, Lopressor)
  • nebivolol (Bystolic)
  • atenolol (Tenormin)
  • carvedilol (Coreg)

Examples of ACE inhibitors include:

  • lisinopril (Prinivil)
  • ramipril (Altace)
  • enalapril (Vasotec)
  • quinapril (Accupril)

And finally, examples of diuretics include:

  • hydrochlorothiazide (Microzide)
  • furosemide (Lasix)
  • bumetanide (Bumex)
  • spironolactone (Aldactone)

If you have questions about the best medication to treat your condition, talk with your doctor.

How does metoprolol work? What’s its half-life and how long does it stay in your system?

Metoprolol belongs to a group of drugs called beta-blockers. It works by slowing down your heart rate and relaxing your blood vessels.

This is how the drug helps to decrease your blood pressure and prevent angina (a type of chest pain). In addition, metoprolol tartrate works to prevent or treat heart attacks and metoprolol succinate treats heart failure. (To learn more about these two forms of metoprolol, see the “How is metoprolol taken?” section above.)

Metoprolol has a half-life of between 3 and 7 hours. This means that after 3 to 7 hours, half of a dose of the drug has been eliminated from your body.

Metoprolol succinate is the extended-release form of metoprolol. It’s released consistently over a period of time in your body, instead of all at once. If you take metoprolol succinate, you have a consistent amount of drug in your blood that’s slowly released from the tablet throughout the day.

Metoprolol tartrate, on the other hand, is an immediate-release form of metoprolol. It can cause a higher level of drug in your body right after you take your dose. This level then decreases over time. So if you’re taking immediate-release metoprolol, you may have to take doses more often than you would with extended-release metoprolol.

If you have more questions about how metoprolol works and which form of the drug is best for you, talk with your doctor or pharmacist.

What should I know about metoprolol vs. propranolol and carvedilol?

Metoprolol, propranolol, and carvedilol all belong to the same group of drugs called beta-blockers. Beta-blockers all work in a similar way to decrease blood pressure and relax your blood vessels so that your blood can flow more freely.

Each medication comes in two forms: an extended-release form and an immediate-release form. Immediate-release forms work as soon as you take them. Extended-release forms work consistently over a period of time after you take them.

Depending on the form of each drug prescribed, some shared uses of metoprolol, propranolol, and carvedilol include:

These medications have some unique uses, too.

Metoprolol, propranolol, and carvedilol are similar because they’re all beta-blockers. But they do have some differences, including:

  • their prescribed doses
  • how often they’re taken
  • their possible side effects

If you have questions about which medication is right for you, talk with your doctor or pharmacist.

Does metoprolol interact with grapefruit?

No, metoprolol doesn’t interact with grapefruit.

But other drugs used for heart-related conditions may interact with grapefruit. For instance, the following drugs may have an interaction with grapefruit:

If you’re taking metoprolol, you may also be taking other medications that could interact with grapefruit.

If you’re concerned about any of your medications interacting with grapefruit, talk with your doctor or pharmacist. They’ll help you determine if your medications interact with grapefruit.

Can metoprolol cause weight gain?

Very rarely, weight gain has been reported as a side effect of metoprolol. But it’s not known how often this side effect may occur or if metoprolol actually causes it.

In addition, weight gain can happen with heart failure, which metoprolol is used to treat. In some rare cases, metoprolol may make symptoms of heart failure worse. For example, when your dose of metoprolol is increased, you may notice more symptoms of heart failure. So be sure to tell your doctor if you notice any changes in symptoms of heart failure, including weight gain.

If you gain weight while you’re taking metoprolol, tell your doctor. They’ll help you determine what’s causing the weight gain.

Before you start taking metoprolol oral tablets, you should discuss your overall health with your doctor. Be sure to tell them about any other health conditions you have and other medications or supplements you’re taking. This will help them determine if metoprolol is a safe treatment option for you.

These and other considerations are described below.

Interactions

Taking medications, vaccines, foods, and other things with a certain drug can affect how the drug works. These effects are called interactions.

Before taking metoprolol oral tablets, be sure to tell your doctor about all medications you take, including prescription and over-the-counter types. Also describe any vitamins, herbs, or supplements you use. Your doctor or pharmacist can tell you about any interactions these items may cause with metoprolol oral tablet.

Interactions with drugs or supplements

Metoprolol oral tablets can interact with several types of drugs, including:

This list does not contain all types of drugs that may interact with metoprolol oral tablets. Your doctor or pharmacist can tell you more about these interactions and any others that may occur with use of metoprolol oral tablet.

Other interactions

It’s possible that metoprolol oral tablets can interact with things besides other medications.

For example, metoprolol oral tablets may interact with caffeine. Eating foods or drinking beverages that have caffeine in them can make metoprolol less effective. So if you’re consuming caffeine with metoprolol, the drug may not work as well to treat your condition.

If you consume caffeine, talk with your doctor about an amount that’s safe for you to have while you’re taking metoprolol.

Boxed warning

Metoprolol oral tablet has a boxed warning about possible heart problems if you suddenly stop taking the medication.

A boxed warning is a serious warning from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

For more information about this warning, see the “What are metoprolol oral tablet’s side effects?” section above.

Other warnings

Metoprolol oral tablets may not be right for you if you have certain medical conditions or other factors that affect your health. Talk with your doctor about your health history before you take metoprolol oral tablets. Factors to consider include those in the list below.

  • Slow heart rate. If you have a slow heart rate, metoprolol will slow your heart rate even more. In fact, having a heart rate lower than 45 beats per minute is a contraindication to taking metoprolol oral tablets. (A contraindication is a reason that you should not take a certain medication.) So if your heart rate is too low, your doctor will likely recommend a different medication for you.
  • Certain heart conditions. If you have certain heart conditions, you should not take metoprolol oral tablets. These conditions include sinus bradycardia, heart block, shock, certain types of heart failure, sick sinus syndrome, and severe problems with blood circulation. These conditions are contraindications for using metoprolol. If you have any of these heart problems, taking metoprolol can be unsafe. Your doctor will likely recommend a different medication for you.
  • Liver problems. If you have liver problems, tell your doctor before you take metoprolol oral tablets. Your body gets rid of metoprolol by processing it through your liver. If your liver isn’t working as well as it should, the drug may build up in your body. And this can increase your risk of side effects. If you have any liver problems, your doctor may have you start taking a lower dosage of metoprolol than usual.
  • Allergic reaction. If you’ve had an allergic reaction to metoprolol oral tablets or any of their ingredients, you should not take the drug. Ask your doctor what other medications are better options for you.
  • Lung conditions such as asthma or COPD. If you have lung conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), your doctor may recommend a different medication for you. This is because metoprolol oral tablets may affect your breathing and cause your lung condition to worsen. If you have any lung conditions, tell your doctor before you take metoprolol. They may recommend another medication for you. Or they may monitor you more often than usual during treatment.
  • Diabetes or low blood sugar. Metoprolol may mask or decrease symptoms of a low blood sugar level. So if you have diabetes or a low blood sugar level, it’s important that you’re able to recognize when you have low blood sugar. Then you can treat it right away. Having untreated low blood sugar can lead to serious complications. Your doctor may recommend that you monitor your blood sugar level more often than usual if you’re taking metoprolol. Or they may recommend a different medication for you.
  • Thyroid problems. If you have thyroid problems, metoprolol can decrease symptoms of your thyroid condition. Because of this, you may not realize that your thyroid hormone levels are abnormal. In some cases, this can be serious. Additionally, suddenly stopping metoprolol can cause thyroid storm to occur. This is a life-threatening condition resulting from an overactive thyroid. If you have any thyroid problems, tell your doctor before starting metoprolol. They may recommend a different medication for you or they may monitor your thyroid more often than usual during treatment.
  • Blood circulation problems. If you have any problems with your blood circulation, metoprolol can make your condition worse. If you have blood circulation problems, tell your doctor before you start taking metoprolol. They may recommend a different medication for you.

Use with alcohol

Typically, your doctor will recommend that you avoid drinking alcohol while you’re taking metoprolol. This is because both alcohol and metoprolol can lower your blood pressure. Drinking alcohol while you’re taking metoprolol can cause your blood pressure to become too low, which can be dangerous.

If you have questions about drinking alcohol while you’re taking metoprolol oral tablets, talk with your doctor. They may recommend a different medication for you.

Pregnancy and breastfeeding

It’s not known if metoprolol oral tablets are safe to take during pregnancy. If you’re pregnant or planning to become pregnant, talk with your doctor. They may recommend a medication other than metoprolol for you.

Metoprolol is present in the breast milk of people who are taking the drug. But it’s present in a very small amount. If you’re breastfeeding, tell your doctor before taking metoprolol. They’ll be able to discuss the safety of breastfeeding while you’re taking this drug.

If you have certain heart problems, your doctor may recommend metoprolol oral tablet for you. It’s a prescription drug that’s available in two forms:

  • immediate-release tablets, called metoprolol tartrate
  • extended-release tablets, called metoprolol succinate

To learn more about immediate-release tablets and extended-release tablets, see the “How is metoprolol oral tablet taken?” section above.

Both of these forms of metoprolol can be used to:

Additionally, metoprolol succinate is used to treat heart failure. With heart failure, your heart doesn’t work as well as it should to pump your blood.

And metoprolol tartrate is used to treat a heart attack or prevent one from occurring in the future. With heart attack, blood flow to your heart muscle is impaired.

Both metoprolol succinate and metoprolol tartrate can be used in adults. In addition, metoprolol succinate can be used in children ages 6 years and older with high blood pressure. Metoprolol succinate isn’t used for any other conditions in children. It’s not known if metoprolol tartrate may be used in children.

Metoprolol oral tablets work by decreasing your heart rate and blood pressure. They help your heart pump blood more easily throughout your body.

Don’t take more metoprolol oral tablets than your doctor prescribes. Using more than this can lead to serious side effects.

Symptoms of overdose

Symptoms caused by an overdose can include:

What to do in case you take too much metoprolol oral tablet

Call your doctor if you think you’ve taken too much metoprolol or if you accidentally took a double dose. You can also call 800-222-1222 to reach the American Association of Poison Control Centers or use their online resource. However, if you have severe symptoms, immediately call 911 (or your local emergency number) or go to the nearest emergency room.

Both metoprolol and atenolol belong to a group of drugs called beta-blockers. They work in very similar ways to treat heart problems.

Metoprolol and atenolol have some shared uses, including:

These medications both come as tablets that you’ll take by mouth.

Both atenolol and metoprolol tartrate are immediate-release medications. In comparison, metoprolol succinate is an extended-release medication. Immediate-release forms work as soon as you take them. Extended-release forms work consistently over a period of time after you take them.

If you’d like to know more about how these drugs compare, see this drug article. And talk with your doctor about which drug is better for your condition.

Costs of prescription drugs can vary depending on many factors. These factors include what your insurance plan covers and which pharmacy you use. To find current prices for metoprolol oral tablets in your area, visit GoodRx.com.

Financial assistance to help you pay for metoprolol oral tablets may be available. Medicine Assistance Tool and NeedyMeds are two websites that provide resources to help reduce the cost of metoprolol oral tablet.

These websites also offer tools to help you find low-cost healthcare and certain educational resources. To learn more, visit their websites.

If you have certain heart problems, your doctor may recommend metoprolol oral tablet for you.

To learn about metoprolol’s uses, see the “What is metoprolol oral tablet used for?” section above.

Before you start taking metoprolol oral tablets, you may wish to ask your doctor or pharmacist some questions. Here are some questions that may help you:

  • Is metoprolol tartrate or metoprolol succinate better for my condition?
  • What happens if I become pregnant while I’m taking metoprolol?
  • Can metoprolol tartrate or metoprolol succinate cause hair loss?
  • Do any of my other medications or supplements interact with metoprolol oral tablets?

For more information about treating your condition, see these treatment option articles for:

Additionally, if you have a heart condition, you may want to sign up for Healthline’s heart health newsletter.

Disclaimer: Healthline has made every effort to make certain that all information is factually correct, comprehensive, and up to date. However, this article should not be used as a substitute for the knowledge and expertise of a licensed healthcare professional. You should always consult your doctor or another healthcare professional before taking any medication. The drug information contained herein is subject to change and is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. The absence of warnings or other information for a given drug does not indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective, or appropriate for all patients or all specific uses.