Diabetes mellitus is a term for a group of disorders that cause elevated blood sugar (glucose) levels in the body.
Glucose is a critical source of energy for your:
When you eat, your body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose. This triggers the pancreas to release a hormone called insulin, which acts as a “key” that allows glucose to enter the cells from the blood.
If your body doesn’t produce enough insulin to effectively manage glucose, it can’t function or perform properly. This leads to symptoms of diabetes.
Diabetes that’s not well managed can cause serious complications by damaging blood vessels and organs. It can increase the risk of:
Here’s a breakdown of the different types of diabetes:
- Prediabetes: Blood glucose levels are higher than what’s considered normal, but they’re not high enough to qualify as diabetes.
- Type 1 diabetes: The pancreas produces no insulin.
- Type 2 diabetes: The pancreas doesn’t make enough insulin, or your body can’t use it effectively.
- Gestational diabetes: People who are pregnant are unable to make and use all of the insulin they need.
According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), people who develop non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (type 2 diabetes) nearly always have prediabetes. This means blood glucose levels are elevated, but they’re not yet high enough to be considered diabetes.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates
Type 1 diabetes
Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (type 2 diabetes)
Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, or type 2 diabetes, is the most common form of diabetes.
With this disorder, the pancreas can initially produce insulin, but your body’s cells can’t respond to it effectively. This is known as insulin resistance.
According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), people with gestational diabetes will have a greater chance of developing type 2 diabetes within 10 years.
According to the
Previously known as juvenile diabetes, type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in childhood. The CDC estimates less than
While factors such as genetics and certain viruses may contribute to this disease, its exact cause is unknown. There’s currently no cure or any known prevention, but there are treatments to help manage symptoms.
Your risk for developing type 2 diabetes increases as you get older.
You’re also more likely to develop it if you’ve had gestational diabetes or prediabetes. Other risk factors include having obesity or overweight or having a family history of diabetes.
While you can’t completely eliminate the risk of type 2 diabetes, a healthy diet, weight control, and regular exercise may help prevent it.
Certain ethnicities are at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes, too, which is most likely due to inequities in the healthcare system.
The ethnic groups
- African Americans
- Hispanic/Latino Americans
- Native Americans
- Pacific Islanders
- Asian Americans
Blindness is a common diabetes complication.
Diabetic retinopathy, in particular, is the most common cause of blindness among people with diabetes. It’s a leading cause of vision loss among working-age adults, according to the National Eye Institute.
Diabetes is also a leading cause of kidney failure. Nervous system damage, or neuropathy, also affects up to half of people with diabetes.
Diabetes can also lead to amputation of the lower limb.
According to the ADA, diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States.
The ADA estimates in 2017 that diagnosed diabetes led to some $237 million in direct medical costs such as inpatient care and prescription medication, as well as another $90 million in reduced productivity.
If you or a loved one is living with diabetes, it’s important to keep it well-managed. Eating well, staying active, following all directives from your healthcare team, and keeping up with medical appointments is a great way to do that.