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Spots on the tongue can be uncomfortable, but they’re usually not serious. They often resolve without treatment, but some may signal a serious underlying problem.
You may be able to identify the cause of some spots easily, but others need further examination. Read on to learn about different types of spots, what they look like, and when you should see your doctor.
There are dozens of conditions that may cause a spot, bump, or lesion on your tongue. Here are a few:
|black hairy tongue||black, gray, or brown patches; may look like they’re growing hair|
|geographic tongue||smooth, red spots of irregular shape on the top and sides of the tongue|
|leukoplakia||irregularly shaped white or gray spots|
|lie bumps||small white or red spots or bumps|
|thrush||creamy white patches, sometimes with red lesions|
|aphthous ulcers (canker sores)||shallow, whitish ulcers|
|tongue cancer||scab or ulcer that doesn’t heal|
Black hairy tongue
This condition will appear as black, gray, or brown patches that look like they’re growing hair.
Black hairy tongue can start out as a small spot and grow to coat most of the top of the tongue. It’s a buildup of dead skin cells that fail to shed as they should. This could be due to poor oral habits, medications, or tobacco use.
The risk of developing black hairy tongue increases with age and men get it more often than women.
Anything you put in your mouth can alter the color of the spots, including food, caffeine, and mouthwash. Bacteria and yeast can take hold causing the spots to begin to look like hair.
Use your toothbrush on your tongue or a tongue scraper every day to treat black hairy tongue at home. That should help clear it up within a few weeks. Most of the time, black hairy tongue goes away without medical intervention. If not, a dentist or doctor can use special tools to scrape your tongue. Consistent use of a toothbrush and tongue scraper should prevent it from returning.
Geographic tongue appears as smooth, red spots of an irregular shape on the side or top of your tongue. The spots can change size, shape, and location. The cause is unknown. It’s harmless and usually clears up on its own, but it can take weeks or months. In some cases, it can last for years.
You may have pain or a burning sensation, especially after eating foods that are:
This condition causes irregularly shaped white or gray spots to form on your tongue. The cause is unknown, but it’s highly associated with smoking tobacco or using smokeless tobacco. It’s also associated with alcohol abuse and can be related to repetitive trauma to your tongue, such as trauma associated with dentures.
Most of the time, leukoplakia is benign. Leukoplakia can sometimes contain precancerous or cancerous cells, so it’s important to see your doctor. A biopsy can determine if there’s any cause for concern.
Leukoplakia can also appear on the gums and cheeks.
Lie bumps are also known as transient lingual papillitis. They’re small white or red spots or bumps on the tongue. You may have one or more bumps on the surface of the tongue. Their cause is unknown.
No treatment is necessary for lie bumps. They usually clear up on their own in a matter of days.
The fungus Candida causes thrush, or oral candidiasis. It appears as creamy white patches, sometimes with red lesions. These patches can appear on your tongue, but they can also spread to anywhere in your mouth and throat.
Infants and older people are more susceptible to thrush. So are people with weakened immune systems or those who take certain medications.
Other symptoms may include:
- raised, cottage cheese-like lesions
- a loss of taste
- dry mouth
- difficulty eating or swallowing
Most of the time, diagnosis can be made based on appearance. The treatment may include antifungal medication but may be more complicated if your immune system is compromised.
Aphthous ulcers, or canker sores, are common lesions on the tongue that appear as shallow, whitish ulcers. The cause is unknown but may be associated with:
- minor trauma to the tongue
- toothpaste and mouthwashes containing lauryl
- a vitamin B-12, iron, or folate deficiency
- an allergic response to bacteria in your mouth
- the menstrual cycle
- emotional stress
- celiac disease
- inflammatory bowel disease
- other immune-mediated disorders
Sensitivity to certain foods can also cause canker sores, including sensitivity to:
Canker sores aren’t caused by the herpes virus, which causes cold sores.
Canker sores usually go away in one to two weeks without treatment. Several over-the-counter and prescription medications can treat the symptoms in severe cases. Your doctor may also recommend other treatments or medications depending on the cause of the ulcers.
Cancer of the tongue
The most common form of tongue cancer is squamous cell carcinoma. It usually appears like an ulcer or a scab that doesn’t heal. It can develop on any part of the tongue and may bleed if you touch it or otherwise traumatize it.
Other symptoms include:
Anyone can develop spots on the tongue. Spots are usually temporary and not harmful. You’re at increased risk for oral problems if you use tobacco products, abuse alcohol, or have a weakened immune system.
- drinking alcohol
- having the human papillomavirus (HPV)
Dentists are trained to examine your mouth and tongue for signs of oral cancer and other conditions. It’s a good idea to see your dentist twice per year for a thorough exam.
If you have spots on your tongue for more than a few weeks and you don’t know the cause, see your dentist or doctor.
Many tongue spots and bumps, such as thrush and black hairy tongue, can be diagnosed on appearance alone. You’ll still want to tell your doctor about:
- other symptoms, such as pain or lumps in your mouth, neck, or throat
- all of the medications and supplements you take
- whether or not you smoke or have smoked in the past
- whether or not you drink alcohol or have done so in the past
- whether or not you have a compromised immune system
- your personal and family history of cancer
Even though most spots are harmless and clear up without treatment, spots and bumps on your tongue or anywhere in the mouth can be a sign of cancer.
If your doctor suspects tongue cancer, you may need some imaging tests, such as X-rays or positron emission tomography (PET) scans. A biopsy of the suspicious tissue can help your doctor determine for sure if it’s cancerous or not.
You can’t completely prevent tongue spots. However, there are some ways to cut down on your risk, including:
- not smoking or chewing tobacco
- drinking alcohol only in moderation
- getting regular dental checkups
- reporting unusual symptoms of the tongue and mouth to your doctor
- if you’ve had problems with tongue spots before, ask your doctor for special oral care instructions
Good daily oral hygiene includes:
- brushing your teeth
- gentle brushing of your tongue