Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a chronic progressive condition that affects the pumping power of your heart muscle.
While often referred to simply as heart failure, CHF specifically refers to the stage in which fluid builds up within the heart and causes it to pump inefficiently.
You have four heart chambers. The upper half of your heart is made up of two atria, and the lower half of your heart is made up of two ventricles.
The ventricles pump blood to your body’s organs and tissues, and the atria receive blood from your body as it circulates back from the rest of your body.
CHF develops when your ventricles can’t pump enough blood volume to the body. Eventually, blood and other fluids can back up inside your:
- lower body
CHF can be life threatening. If you suspect you or someone you know has CHF, seek immediate medical treatment.
In the early stages of CHF, you most likely won’t notice any changes in your health. If your condition progresses, you’ll experience gradual changes in your body.
|Symptoms you may notice first||Symptoms that indicate your condition has worsened||Symptoms that indicate a severe heart condition|
|fatigue||irregular heartbeat||chest pain that radiates through the upper body|
|swelling in your ankles, feet, and legs||a cough that develops from congested lungs||rapid breathing|
|weight gain||wheezing||skin that appears blue, which is due to lack of oxygen in your lungs|
|increased need to urinate, especially at night||shortness of breath, which may indicate pulmonary edema||fainting|
Chest pain that radiates through the upper body can also be a sign of a heart attack. If you experience this or any other symptoms that may point to a severe heart condition, seek immediate medical attention.
Symptoms of heart failure in children and infants
It can be difficult to recognize heart failure in infants and young children. Symptoms may include:
These symptoms can easily be misunderstood as colic or a respiratory infection. Poor growth and low blood pressure can also be signs of heart failure in children.
In some cases, you may be able to feel a resting baby’s rapid heart rate through their chest wall.
You and your doctor may consider different treatments depending on your overall health and how far your condition has progressed.
Congestive heart failure drugs
There are several medications that can be used to treat CHF, including ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers, and more.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors open up narrowed blood vessels to improve blood flow. Vasodilators are another option if you can’t tolerate ACE inhibitors.
You may be prescribed one of the following:
- benazepril (Lotensin)
- captopril (Capoten)
- enalapril (Vasotec)
- fosinopril (Monopril)
- lisinopril (Zestril)
- quinapril (Accupril).
- ramipril (Altace)
- moexipril (Univasc)
- perindopril (Aceon)
- trandolapril (Mavik)
On April 22, 2022, Pfizer issued a
ACE inhibitors shouldn’t be taken with the following medications without consulting a doctor, because they may cause an adverse reaction:
- Potassium-sparing diuretics and potassium supplements. These diuretics can cause potassium buildup in the blood, which may lead to abnormal heart rhythms. Examples include: riamterene (Dyrenium), eplerenone (Inspra), and spironolactone (Aldactone).
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). NSAIDs such as ibuprofen, aspirin, and naproxen, can cause sodium and water retention. This may reduce the ACE inhibitor’s effect on your blood pressure.
This is an abbreviated list, so always speak with your doctor before taking any new medications.
Beta-blockers decrease the work the heart has to do and can reduce blood pressure and slow a rapid heart rhythm.
This may be achieved with:
- atenolol (Tenormin)
- bisoprolol (Zebeta)
- carvedilol (Coreg)
- esmolol (Brevibloc)
- metoprolol (Lopressor)
- nadolol (Corgard)
- nebivolol (Bystolic)
Beta-blockers should be taken with caution with the following medications, as they may cause an adverse reaction:
- Medications that slow the heart rate. These can increase cardiovascular effects, including slowed heart rate. Some examples include amiodarone (Nexterone), verapamil, diltiazem, and digoxin.
- Albuterol (AccuNeb). The effects of albuterol on bronchodilation may be canceled out by beta-blockers.
- Antipsychotics. Certain antipsychotics, such as thioridazine (Mellaril), may also cause low blood pressure in some people.
- Fentora (Fentanyl). This may cause low blood pressure.
- Clonidine (Catapres). Clonidine may increase risk of slow heart rate.
Some medications may not be listed here. You should always consult your doctor before taking any new medications.
Diuretics reduce your body’s fluid content. CHF can cause your body to retain more fluid than it should.
Your doctor may recommend:
- Loop diuretics. These cause the kidneys to produce more urine. This helps remove excess fluid from your body. Examples include furosemide (Lasix), ethacrynic acid (Edecrin), and torsemide (Demadex).
- Potassium-sparing diuretics. These help get rid of fluids and sodium while still retaining potassium. Examples include triamterene (Dyrenium), eplerenone (Inspra), and spironolactone (Aldactone).
- Thiazide diuretics. These cause blood vessels to widen and help the body remove any extra fluid. Examples include metolazone (Zaroxolyn), indapamide (Lozol), and hydrochlorothiazide (Microzide).
Diuretics should be taken with caution with the following medications, as they may cause an adverse reaction:
- ACE inhibitors. These can cause decreased blood pressure, including lisinopril (Zestril), benazepril (Lotensin), and captopril (Capoten).
- Tricyclics. Also called tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), they may cause lowered blood pressure. Examples include: amitriptyline and desipramine (Norpramin).
- Anxiolytics. Anxiolytics are anti-anxiety drugs, which may lower blood pressure. Common anxiolytics include alprazolam (Xanax), chlordiazepoxide (Librium), and diazepam (Valium).
- Hypnotics. Sedatives such as zolpidem (Ambien) and triazolam (Halcion) may cause low blood pressure.
- Beta-blockers. Beta-blockers, such as metoprolol (Lopressor) and carvedilol (Coreg), may also cause low blood pressure.
- Calcium channel blockers. CCBs can cause a drop in blood pressure. Examples include amlodipine (Norvasc) and diltiazem (Cardizem).
- Nitrates. These drugs, such as nitroglycerin (Nitrostat) and isosorbide-dinitrate (Isordil), may lower blood pressure.
- NSAIDs. These medications may cause toxicity of the liver.
This is an abbreviated list with only the most common drug interactions. You should always talk with your doctor before taking any new medications.
Surgeries and procedures
If medications aren’t effective on their own, more invasive procedures may be required.
Angioplasty, a procedure to open up blocked arteries, is one option.
Your cardiologist may also consider heart valve repair surgery to help your valves open and close properly.
As mentioned, early signs of congestive heart failure may not be very noticeable. Here are some early warning signs to discuss with your healthcare provider:
- excess fluid in body tissues like the ankles, feet, legs, or abdomen
- coughing or wheezing
- shortness of breath
- weight gain that can’t be attributed to anything else
- general fatigue
- increased heart rate
- lack of appetite or feeling nauseated
- feeling confused or disoriented
When the heart isn’t able to pump blood effectively, blood can get backed up in veins and tissues. Blood and other fluids can back up in certain areas and cause swelling (edema).
The ankles, feet, legs, and abdomen are common places that can swell.
Here is an example of edema:
|Class 1||You don’t experience any symptoms during typical physical activity.||CHF at this stage can be managed through lifestyle changes, heart medications, and monitoring.|
|Class 2||You’re likely comfortable at rest, but normal physical activity may cause fatigue, palpitations, and shortness of breath.||CHF at this stage can be managed through lifestyle changes, heart medications, and careful monitoring.|
|Class 3||You’re likely comfortable at rest, but there’s a noticeable limitation of physical activity. Even mild exercise may cause fatigue, palpitations, or shortness of breath.||Treatment can be complicated. Talk with your doctor about what heart failure at this stage may mean for you.|
|Class 4||You’re likely unable to carry on any amount of physical activity without symptoms, which are present even at rest.||There’s no cure for CHF at this stage, but there are still quality of life and palliative care options. You’ll want to discuss the potential benefits and risks of each with your doctor.|
CHF may result from other health conditions that directly affect your cardiovascular system. This is why it’s important to get annual checkups to lower your risk for heart health problems, including:
When your blood pressure is higher than normal, it may lead to CHF.
Hypertension has many different causes. Among them is the hardening of your arteries, which increases pressure in the arteries.
Coronary artery disease
Cholesterol and other types of fatty substances can block the coronary arteries, which are the small arteries that supply blood to the heart. This causes the arteries to become narrow.
Narrower coronary arteries restrict blood flow and can lead to damage in your arteries.
Your heart valves regulate blood flow through your heart by opening and closing to let blood in and out of the chambers.
Valves that don’t open and close correctly may force your ventricles to work harder to pump blood. This can be a result of a heart infection or defect.
While heart-related diseases can lead to CHF, there are other seemingly unrelated conditions that may increase your risk, too.
Severe infections and allergic reactions may also contribute to CHF.
Left-sided CHF is the most common type of CHF. It occurs when your left ventricle doesn’t properly pump blood out to your body.
As the condition progresses, fluid can build up in your lungs, which makes breathing difficult.
There are two kinds of left-sided heart failure:
- Systolic heart failure occurs when the left ventricle fails to contract normally. This reduces the level of force available to push blood into circulation. Without this force, the heart can’t pump properly.
- Diastolic failure, or diastolic dysfunction, happens when the muscle in the left ventricle becomes stiff. Because it can no longer relax, the heart can’t quite fill with blood between beats.
Right-sided CHF occurs when the right ventricle has difficulty pumping blood to your lungs. Blood backs up in your blood vessels, which causes fluid retention in your lower extremities, abdomen, and other vital organs.
It’s possible to have left-sided and right-sided CHF at the same time. Usually, the disease starts in the left side and then travels to the right when left untreated.
Age at diagnosis, other conditions, and sex also contributed to variables in life expectancy, with some under 3 years after diagnosis.
The prognosis and life expectancy for congestive heart failure can vary based on many factors. Generally, early diagnosis and following a treatment plan can lead to better management and a longer life.
After reporting your symptoms to your doctor, they may refer you to a heart specialist, or cardiologist.
The cardiologist will perform a physical exam, which will involve listening to your heart with a stethoscope to detect abnormal heart rhythms.
To confirm an initial diagnosis, a cardiologist might order certain diagnostic tests to examine your heart’s valves, blood vessels, and chambers.
There are a variety of tests used to diagnose heart conditions. Because these tests measure different things, your doctor may recommend a few to get a full picture of your current condition.
Blood tests can check for abnormal blood cells and infections. This includes testing for blood count, kidney function, and liver function. They can also check the level of BNP, a hormone that rises with heart failure.
Chest X-rays can be used to asses heart size and fluid build up in the lungs and blood vessels. This is usually one of the first tests your doctor will recommend.
An electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG) records your heart’s rhythm.
Abnormalities in your heart’s rhythm, such as a rapid heartbeat or irregular rhythm, could suggest that the walls of your heart’s chamber are thicker than normal. That could be a warning sign for a heart attack.
An echocardiogram uses sound waves to record the heart’s structure and motion. The test can determine if you already have poor blood flow, muscle damage, or a heart muscle that doesn’t contract normally.
Stress tests show how well your heart performs under different levels of stress.
Making your heart work harder makes it easier for your doctor to diagnose problems.
Cardiac catheterization can show blockages of the coronary arteries. Your doctor will insert a small tube into your blood vessel and thread it from your upper thigh (groin area), arm, or wrist.
At the same time, the doctor can take blood samples, use X-rays to view your coronary arteries, and check blood flow and pressure in your heart chambers.
An MRI takes pictures of your heart. With both still and moving pictures, this allows your doctor to see if there’s damage to your heart.
Some factors are based on our genetics, but lifestyle can play a role as well.
There are several things you can do to lower your risk of heart failure, or at least delay onset.
Avoid or quit smoking
If you do smoke and haven’t been able to quit, ask your doctor to recommend products and services that can help.
Secondhand smoke is also a health hazard. If you live with a smoker, ask them to smoke outdoors.
Maintain a well-balanced diet
A heart healthy diet is rich in vegetables, fruits, and whole grains. You also need protein in your diet.
Things to avoid include:
- salt (sodium)
- added sugars
- solid fats
- refined grains
As little as 1 hour of moderate aerobic exercise per week can improve your heart health. Walking, bicycling, and swimming are good forms of exercise.
If you haven’t exercised in a while, start with just 15 minutes a day and work your way up.
If you feel unmotivated to work out alone, consider taking a class — it can even be online — or sign up for personal training at a local gym.
Watch your weight
If you aren’t at a healthy weight for your body, talk with a doctor about how to move forward. You can also consult a dietitian or nutritionist.
Other preventive steps
Drink alcohol only in moderation and stay away from illegal drugs. When taking prescription medications, follow instructions carefully and never increase your dose without a doctor’s supervision.
If you’re at high risk for heart failure or already have some heart damage, you can still follow these steps. Be sure to ask your doctor how much physical activity is safe and if you have any other restrictions.
If you’re on medication for high blood pressure, heart disease, or diabetes, take them exactly as directed. See your doctor regularly to monitor your condition and report any new symptoms right away.
Is congestive heart failure genetic? Can lifestyle changes help prevent it?Anonymous patient
Cardiomyopathy, or damage to the heart muscle, can be a cause of heart failure, and genetics could play a role in some types of cardiomyopathy. However, most cases of congestive heart failure (CHF) are not hereditary. Some risk factors for CHF, such as hypertension, diabetes, and coronary artery disease, can run in families. To reduce your risk of developing CHF, consider making lifestyle changes like eating a healthy diet and getting regular exercise.Elaine K. Luo, MDAnswers represent the opinions of our medical experts. All content is strictly informational and should not be considered medical advice.
Your condition may improve with medication, surgery, or lifestyle changes. Your outlook depends on how advanced your CHF is and whether you have other health conditions to treat, like diabetes or high blood pressure.
The earlier your condition is diagnosed, the better your outlook. Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you.