The main difference between colon and rectal cancer is whether cancer polyps first form in the colon or the rectum.
According to the
Colon cancer remains the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths among women and men combined, though experts believe deaths could be prevented with
Read on to learn how this condition affects women, plus symptoms and what to expect during treatment.
Colon cancer starts as a tiny growth in the inner wall of the colon. These growths are called polyps.
Polyps are usually benign (noncancerous), but when a cancerous polyp does form, cancer cells can move into the lining of the colon or rectum and spread. Cancer cells can also enter the bloodstream and lymph system.
In its early stages, colon cancer may have no noticeable symptoms.
When they do occur, signs of colon cancer in women tend to be the same as those seen in men, and can include:
- constipation, diarrhea, or other changes in bowel habits
- blood in stool or rectal bleeding
- abdominal pain or cramps
- a sensation that your bowel hasn’t emptied completely
- unexplained weight loss
- fatigue, weakness, or reduced energy level
Colon cancer symptoms vs. symptoms related to menstruation
Some symptoms of colon cancer may be easy to mistake for symptoms related to your menstrual cycle. For example, feeling unusually tired or lacking energy are common symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS).
These are also symptoms of anemia, which you may experience if you lose a lot of blood during your menstrual period.
Talk to your doctor if you regularly experience fatigue or abdominal pain that’s not related to your menstrual cycle, or if you’re experiencing these symptoms for the first time — even if they’re aligned with your menstrual cycle.
You should also talk to your doctor if these symptoms feel different from what you normally experience around your menstrual period.
Most of the same factors that raise the risk of colon cancer for men are the same for women.
Among these risks are:
- Increased age. Risk tends to climb significantly
after the age of 50, though younger people can develop colon cancer, too.
- Personal history of polyps. If you’ve had benign polyps in the past, you face higher risks of cancerous polyps forming later on. Having had colon cancer also puts you at a higher risk of a new cancerous polyp forming.
- Family history of colon cancer or polyps. Having a parent, sibling, or other close relative with colon cancer or a history of polyps makes you more likely to develop colon cancer.
- Radiation treatment. If you’ve received radiation therapy to treat cancers in the abdominal area, including cervical cancer, you may be at a higher risk for colon or rectal cancer.
- Unhealthy lifestyle. Being sedentary or obese, smoking, and drinking alcohol excessively all can raise your risk. Women are advised to have no more than one alcoholic drink per day.
After menopause, a woman’s risk of all cancers increase.
More research is still necessary, however. Discuss the pros and cons of HRT with your doctor before beginning therapy.
You may also be at
The MMR gene mutation has been linked to HPCC. Lynch syndrome accounts for about
For adults age 50-75 who are at a risk of colon cancer of 3% or above, The American College of Physicians recommends fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) or high sensitivity guaiac-based fecal occult blood testing every 2 years, a colonoscopy every 10 years, or a sigmoidoscopy every 10 years plus FIT every 2 years.
These tests are used to screen for colon cancer. Use this risk calculator to determine your own risk level.
A colonoscopy is a procedure in which a long, flexible tube (colonoscope) is inserted into the anus and extended up into the colon. The tip of the tube contains a tiny camera that sends images that the doctor can see on a nearby computer screen.
Any polyps that are discovered can then be removed with special tools that are passed through the colonoscope. The polyps are analyzed in a lab to determine if any cancer cells are present. This part of the process is known as a biopsy.
If results from the biopsy indicate that cancer is present, additional tests or screenings may be performed:
- A gene test may be done to help identify the exact type of cancer, because that could help guide treatment decisions.
- A computed tomography (CT) scan of the tissue near the colon can help your doctor see if the cancer has spread.
- Ultrasounds, which use sound waves, can create computer images of tissue in the body.
A colonoscopy is a standard screening test that both women and men should have starting at
For women at increased risk for colon cancer, you doctor may recommend starting screening earlier.
If no polyps are found during a colonoscopy, then colonoscopies should continue every 10 years. If one or more polyps are found, you’re doctor may recommend screening again earlier depending on your risk factors.
However, the guidelines for screenings change occasionally and there are sometimes differing recommendations between experts, so be sure to talk with your doctor about your risks and how often you should have a colonoscopy.
There are three main types of colon cancer treatment:
In its early stages, colon cancer may be treated by simply removing the cancerous polyps.
When the disease progresses, more tissue or parts of the colon may need to be removed.
During chemotherapy, powerful medications, often administered through an IV, kills cancer cells. It’s often recommended if the cancer has reached the lymph nodes.
Sometimes chemotherapy is started before surgery to help shrink the tumor or tumors.
Targeted therapies or immunotherapies may also be recommended and can be used alone or in conjunction with chemotherapy.
During radiation therapy, powerful energy beams such as X-rays, are aimed at cancerous tumors to shrink or destroy them.
Radiation therapy is sometimes done in conjunction with chemotherapy, and may be recommended prior to surgery.
The survival rate for colon cancer is the same for women and men. The main factor affecting survival rate is how far the cancer has spread. Your age and overall health are also important factors.
In general, localized colon cancer — meaning that the cancer hasn’t spread beyond the colon or rectum — has a 5-year survival rate of
The five-year survival rate for cancer that’s spread into nearby lymph nodes or other tissue is 71 percent. Colon cancer that has spread farther in the body has a much lower survival rate.
When reading survival rate statistics, it’s important to keep in mind that treatment for cancer is constantly evolving. The treatments available today may be more advanced than those available 5 years ago.
While survival rates can give you some general information, they don’t tell the whole story.
Plus, every person’s situation is different. It’s a good idea to discuss your outlook with your doctor since they’ll be most familiar with the progression of your cancer and your treatment plan.
Unlike some other types of cancer, colon cancer can usually be spotted early through routine screenings and treated before it spreads.
Talk with your healthcare provider about when to schedule a colonoscopy and be sure to report any symptoms promptly for further evaluation.
- Colorectal cancer risk factors. (2020).
- Colorectal cancer screening with faecal immunochemical testing, sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy: a clinical practice guideline. (2019)
- Key statistics for colorectal cancer. (2020).
- Mayo Clinic Staff. (2019). Colon cancer. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/colon-cancer/symptoms-causes/syc-20353669
- Menopausal hormone therapy and cancer risk. (2015).
- Morch LS, et al. (2016). The influence of hormone therapies on colon and rectal cancer. DOI:
- Qaseem A, et al. (2019). Screening for Colorectal Cancer in Asymptomatic Average-Risk Adults: A Guidance Statement From the American College of Physicians. https://www.acpjournals.org/doi/10.7326/M19-0642
- Survival rates for colorectal cancer. (2020).
- Tests to diagnose and stage colorectal cancer. (2020).
- Welcome to the QCancer®(15yr,colorectal) risk calculator. (n.d.). http://qcancer.org/15yr/colorectal
- What are the risk factors for colorectal cancer? (2020).
- What should I know about screening? (2020).
- Win AK, et al. (2013). Risks of colorectal and other cancers after endometrial cancer for women with Lynch syndrome. DOI: