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You know the symptoms: runny nose, sneezing, itchy and watery eyes. When your child has allergic rhinitis — otherwise known as allergies—you want to find a medication that can safely relieve their discomfort. There are so many allergy medications out there, it can be confusing figuring out which one might be best for your child.
One allergy medication available today is called Zyrtec. Let’s look at what Zyrtec does, how it works, and how you can use it safely to help treat your child’s allergy symptoms.
Zyrtec comes in two over-the-counter (OTC) versions: Zyrtec and Zyrtec-D. Zyrtec comes in five forms, and Zyrtec-D comes in one form.
That’s a lot of versions and forms, but the important thing to know is that all forms of Zyrtec and Zyrtec-D are safe for use in children of certain ages. That said, two forms of Zyrtec are labeled just for children.
The chart below describes the safe age ranges for each OTC form of Zyrtec and Zyrtec-D.
|Name||Route and form||Strength(s)||Safe for ages*|
|Children’s Zyrtec Allergy: Syrup||oral syrup||5 mg/5 mL||2 years and older|
|Children’s Zyrtec Allergy: Dissolve Tabs||orally disintegrating tablet||10 mg||6 years and older|
|Zyrtec Allergy: Tablets||oral tablet||10 mg||6 years and older|
|Zyrtec Allergy: Dissolve Tabs||orally disintegrating tablet||10 mg||6 years and older|
|Zyrtec Allergy: Liquid Gels||oral capsules||10 mg||6 years and older|
|Zyrtec-D||extended-release oral tablet||5 mg, 120 mg||12 years and older|
* Note: If your child is younger than the age listed for a drug, ask your child’s doctor for guidance. They’ll explain if you can use the drug for your child’s allergies and how to use it.
Zyrtec is also available by prescription as an oral syrup. Your doctor can tell you more about the prescription version.
How Zyrtec and Zyrtec-D work to relieve allergy symptoms
Zyrtec contains an antihistamine called cetirizine. An antihistamine blocks a substance in the body called histamine. This substance can cause an allergic reaction when you’re exposed to allergens. By blocking histamine, Zyrtec works to relieve allergy symptoms such as:
- runny nose
- itchy or watery eyes
- itchy nose or throat
Zyrtec-D contains two drugs: cetirizine and a decongestant called pseudoephedrine. It relieves the same symptoms as Zyrtec, plus other symptoms. Because it contains a decongestant, Zyrtec-D also helps to:
- reduce congestion and pressure in your child’s sinuses
- increase drainage from your child’s sinuses
Zyrtec-D comes as an extended-release tablet that your child takes by mouth. The tablet releases the drug slowly into your child’s body over 12 hours. Your child should swallow the Zyrtec-D tablet whole. Don’t allow them to break it or chew it.
Dosage and length of use for Zyrtec and Zyrtec-D
Follow the dosage instructions on the package for both Zyrtec and Zyrtec-D. The dosage information is based on age. For Zyrtec, you should give your child one dose per day. For Zyrtec-D, you should give your child one dose every 12 hours.
Be sure to avoid giving your child more than the maximum dosage listed on the package. To find out how long your child can take these drugs safely, talk with your child’s doctor.
Like most drugs, Zyrtec and Zyrtec-D have some side effects. They also have some warnings. If you have any questions about the effects of these drugs, ask your child’s doctor or your pharmacist.
Side effects of Zyrtec and Zyrtec-D
The more common side effects of Zyrtec and Zyrtec-D include:
Zyrtec-D can also cause these additional side effects:
- increased heart rate
- feeling jittery
- not feeling tired at bedtime
Zyrtec or Zyrtec-D can also cause serious side effects. Call your child’s doctor or 911 right away if your child has any serious side effects, which can include:
- trouble breathing
- trouble swallowing
If your child takes too much Zyrtec or Zyrtec-D, it can cause very serious effects. Symptoms of an overdose can include:
- extreme drowsiness
If you think your child has taken too much of either drug, call your child’s doctor or local poison control center. If your child’s symptoms are severe, call 911 or go to the nearest emergency room.
If you suspect an overdose
- If you or someone you know may have overdosed, seek emergency care right away. Don’t wait until the symptoms get worse. If you’re in the United States, call either 911 or poison control at 800-222-1222. Otherwise, call your local emergency number.
- Stay on the line and wait for instructions. If possible, have the following information ready to tell the person on the phone:
- • the person’s age, height, and weight
- • the amount taken
- • how long it’s been since the last dose was taken
- • if the person has recently taken any medication or other drugs, supplements, herbs, or alcohol
- • if the person has any underlying medical conditions
- Try to stay calm and keep the person awake while you wait for emergency personnel. Don’t try to make them vomit unless a professional tells you to.
- You can also receive guidance from this online tool from the American Association of Poison Control Centers.
An interaction is when a substance changes the way a drug works. Interactions can cause harmful effects or keep the drug from working well.
To help prevent interactions, talk to your child’s doctor or your pharmacist before your child starts taking Zyrtec or Zyrtec-D. Tell them about any medications, vitamins, or herbs your child is taking. This includes OTC medications. Some of these substances may interact with Zyrtec or Zyrtec-D.
Talking to your child’s doctor or pharmacist is especially important if your child takes any drugs that have been shown to interact with Zyrtec or Zyrtec-D. Examples of these drugs include:
- opiates such as hydrocodone or oxycodone
- monoamine oxidase inhibitors (don’t use within 2 weeks of using Zyrtec or Zyrtec-D)
- other antihistaminessuch as dimenhydrinate, doxylamine, diphenhydramine, or loratadine
- thiazide diuretics such as hydrochlorothiazide or chlorthalidone, or other blood pressure medications
- sedatives such as zolpidem or temazepam, or medications that cause drowsiness
Conditions of concern
Zyrtec or Zyrtec-D may cause health problems when used in children with certain health conditions. Examples of conditions that may lead to problems with Zyrtec use include:
- liver disease
- kidney disease
Examples of conditions that may lead problems with Zyrtec-D use include:
If your child has any of these conditions, Zyrtec or Zyrtec-D may not be the best option to treat their allergies. Talk with your child’s doctor about the condition before giving your child these medications.
Your child’s allergy can’t be cured, but treatments such as Zyrtec and Zyrtec-D may help relieve their symptoms.
If you have questions about these drugs or other allergy medications, be sure to talk with your child’s doctor. They’ll work with you to find a treatment that will help relieve your child’s symptoms so your child can live more comfortably with their allergy.