A chemical stress test uses medications to simulate your heart’s response to exercise. A stress test can assess how well your heart performs during exercise. Your doctor may suggest a stress test if they suspect you may have a heart issue.
If it’s difficult for you to exert yourself on a treadmill or stationary bicycle, you may be a candidate for a chemical stress test. This screening relies on an injected medication that simulates exercise’s effect on your heart.
A chemical stress test can help determine how well your heart pumps blood and if there are problems such as blocked arteries or valve disease.
A variety of symptoms may prompt your doctor to order a stress test. Signs and symptoms may include:
- angina (chest pain caused by a reduction in blood flow to the heart muscle)
- an irregular heartbeat
- shortness of breath
A stress test can also be used to check how your heart is responding to treatment or how your heart is recovering after a heart attack.
A standard exercise stress test is done while you walk on a treadmill. The speed and incline are gradually increased to get your heart to work harder. Sometimes, especially for people who have difficulty with balance or walking, a stationary bike is used instead of a treadmill.
If your health makes it difficult to use a treadmill or stationary bike for an exercise stress test, a chemical stress test can mimic how your heart rate would increase if you were exercising.
You may be a candidate for a chemical stress test instead of a standard stress test if you have issues such as:
- back problems
- joint ailments
- history of stroke
- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or other respiratory conditions
- an unsteady gait
Individuals who have a pacemaker or a condition that prevents their heart rate from accelerating with exercise may also need a chemical stress test instead of a stress test using a treadmill or bike.
A chemical stress test can reveal a great deal about the anatomy and functioning of your heart. During exercise, the demand for oxygenated blood to the heart muscle and the rest of the body increases.
A chemical stress test can help determine:
- how well the heart works when it has to pump harder
- if there’s a blockage in a coronary artery
- if the heart valves are working effectively
- if there’s an abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmia)
A stress test is commonly used to help diagnose:
If the test suggests that your heart isn’t working as well as it should, your doctor can use those findings to create a treatment plan to improve your heart function or to slow the progression of cardiac problems.
How accurate is a chemical stress test?
The accuracy of chemical stress tests (also known as pharmacological stress tests) is considered comparable to that of exercise stress tests. For these reasons, chemical stress tests are now being used more frequently.
Before you do a chemical stress test, you’ll be advised to not have any caffeine for up to 24 hours prior and to avoid smoking, eating, or drinking anything but water for about 4 hours prior to the test. It may also help to wear comfortable clothing.
Once you arrive at your appointment, a chemical stress test will likely include the following steps:
- Right before the test begins, you may undergo a brief physical exam. This might also include an echocardiogram and a blood pressure check.
- For the test itself, you’ll be attached to a heart monitor so your heart function can be assessed. Electrodes may be placed on your skin for an electrocardiogram (ECG). This will record your heart’s rhythm before, during, and after the test.
- You will be hooked up to intravenous (IV) fluids. A chemical will be added to the IV to make your heart beat faster and widen your blood vessels. The
FDA-approved drugsfor chemical stress tests include:
- Once the chemicals are added to your IV, you may feel similar to what you feel when you exercise. You may feel your heart beating faster and experience shortness of breath and flushing.
- All your vital signs will be closely monitored during the test. An ECG will also monitor your heart rhythm. The test can be stopped if you have uncomfortable side effects like chest pain, dizziness, or difficulty breathing.
- After the test is done and the chemicals are no longer entering your body, you will wait in a recovery area where you will be monitored and given snacks and water.
The entire process — from being prepped for the test to the recovery afterward — takes about 2–4 hours.
2021 research, regadenoson is becoming the preferred agent, partly because of fewer adverse reactions and because it acts quickly and allows for a faster recovery at the end of the test.
A chemical stress test is not the same as a nuclear stress test.
A nuclear stress test uses a small amount of a radioactive substance called a tracer. It’s injected into a blood vessel and special imaging equipment can detect it as it travels through the bloodstream to the heart.
The tracer can reveal whether there are blockages in the coronary arteries or other blood flow problems with greater detail than a standard stress test.
You may or may not have a radioactive tracer as part of a chemical stress test. The test may also involve the use of an echocardiogram, which is a screening tool that uses sound waves to create moving images of your heart.
A chemical stress test does not hurt. You may feel some discomfort when the IV line is placed in your arm. As the chemical enters your body, you may feel a little flushed.
It may feel strange to experience your heart beating faster without exerting yourself, but this is part of what the test is meant to do. You may feel similar sensations to what you feel when you’re exercising, but you’ll be stationary. It’s natural to feel anxious when this happens.
Like other stress tests, a chemical stress test is a safe procedure. You’ll be carefully monitored by trained healthcare professionals throughout the procedure and while you recover.
Still, there are some risks. On rare occasions, the chemical agent may trigger an arrhythmia or breathing problem, but these can be treated immediately during the test.
Even more rarely, a chemical stress test may cause a heart attack. Again, a trained healthcare team will be present to administer care at the first sign of any complication.
A chemical stress test is a common, safe, and effective test that can simulate the heart’s response to exercise. This test is commonly used when a standard exercise stress test isn’t an option.
A drug that’s delivered intravenously can speed up the heart rate and widen blood vessels. This allows your doctor and other healthcare professionals to assess how your heart functions when it’s being exerted.
A chemical stress test can be an important screening tool for a variety of heart conditions, including coronary artery disease, arrhythmia, or heart valve disease. Due to the highly controlled environment and careful monitoring, stress tests are generally safe with a low risk of side effects.