Compared with many other types of cancer, testicular cancer has a relatively good outlook and can often be cured, even when caught in the later stages.
Testicular cancer is often curable and tends to have an excellent outlook if treated promptly. People with testicular cancer are about
Doctors often consider testicular cancer cured if there are no signs of the cancer for at least 5 years.
Read on to learn more about how testicular cancer is treated and what factors influence the chances of it being cured.
What does it mean to be cured of testicular cancer?
If your cancer treatment is effective, your doctor will tell you that you’re in remission. Remission means that the cancer has decreased in size. There are two types of remission:
- Partial remission: The cancer is smaller than it was before treatment.
- Complete remission: You no longer have any signs or symptoms of your cancer, and cancer can’t be detected on any of your tests.
Remission is a positive sign that your cancer treatment is working. Remission can last from
Most cancers that relapse come back within 5 years. For this reason, doctors often consider your cancer cured if you’re in complete remission for at least
As per the National Cancer Institute’s
|Stage||5-year relative survival rate|
The 5-year relative survival rate refers to the chances of a person with the cancer being alive 5 years later than somebody without the cancer.
The International Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group considers the following factors as signs of a good outlook for advanced testicular cancers.
|Seminoma tumors||Non-seminoma tumors|
|· the tumor has spread only to abdominal lymph nodes, lungs, or both |
· alpha-fetoprotein level is normal
|· the original tumor is only in the testicle or back of the abdomen |
· the tumor has spread only to abdominal lymph nodes, the lungs, or both
· tumor markers are normal or only mildly elevated
Testicular cancer has a relatively good outlook than many other types of cancer. The goal of testicular cancer treatment is usually to cure the cancer. All stages of testicular cancer can potentially be cured.
Testicular cancer is divided from
- Stage 0: The cancer is isolated to the small tubes inside the testicle called seminiferous tubules.
- Stage 1: The cancer has grown outside these tubes and possibly into nearby structures outside the testicles.
- Stage 2: The tumor may have grown outside the testicle and has spread to nearby lymph nodes.
- Stage 3: The cancer has spread to distant parts of the body.
Later stages of testicular cancer are harder to treat than earlier stages.
Treatment by stage
Here’s a look at the
|Stage 0||· radiation therapy |
· active surveillance, meaning monitoring the cancer without specific treatment
· surgery to remove the testicle
|Stage 1||Seminoma tumors |
· surgery to remove the testicle followed by surveillance or chemotherapy
· surgery to remove the testicle, possibly with chemotherapy or surgery to remove nearby lymph nodes
|Stage 2||Seminoma tumors |
· Surgery to remove the testicle, possibly followed by radiation therapy to lymph nodes around your pelvis and abdomen
· surgery to remove the testicle and lymph nodes in your abdomen
· surgery to remove the testicle, possibly followed by chemotherapy and a second surgery
· chemotherapy and then surgery to remove the testicle
|Stage 3||Seminoma tumors |
· surgery to remove the testicle followed by chemotherapy and possibly another surgery
· a clinical trial of chemotherapy
· surgery to remove the testicle followed by chemotherapy
· chemotherapy followed by surgery to remove the testicle and possibly more chemotherapy
· a clinical trial of chemotherapy
Some subtypes are more aggressive than others
Some subtypes of testicular cancer are more aggressive than others. For example, choriocarcinoma, which makes up less than
If your doctor doesn’t think that the cancer is curable, your treatment may be palliative, meaning it focuses on reducing your symptoms.
How long can you live with testicular cancer?
Many people diagnosed with testicular cancer go on to live full lives comparable to people who are never diagnosed with testicular cancer.
Can a testicle with cancer be saved?
Most people with testicular cancer have a testicle removed. In
Where does testicular cancer typically spread to?
Testicular cancer commonly spreads to nearby lymph nodes. It can also spread to lymph nodes in the neck, pelvis, or chest. The
Is testicular cancer slow- or fast-growing?
Seminoma tumors tend to grow slower than non-seminomas. Testicle cancer is generally slow growing, but some subtypes can be highly aggressive.
Testicular cancer has a relatively good outlook than many other types of cancer. Even testicular cancer caught in the late stages can often be cured.
Doctors often consider cancer cured if there are no signs for 5 years. Most cancers that relapse come back during this period. There’s a slight chance cancer could return even after 5 years.