A sharp pain in your breast, possibly with some tenderness, may have you wondering if it could be something serious. A breast lump is often the first thing people notice that spurs a visit to their doctor.

Although breast cancer generally shows no symptoms in the early stage, timely detection can turn a story of breast cancer into a survivor’s tale.

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Early on, a person may notice a change in her breast when she performs a monthly breast exam or minor abnormal pain that doesn’t seem to go away. Early signs of breast cancer include:

  • changes in the shape of the nipple
  • breast pain that doesn’t go away after your next period
  • a new lump that doesn’t go away after your next period
  • nipple discharge from one breast that’s clear, red, brown, or yellow
  • unexplained redness, swelling, skin irritation, itchiness, or rash on the breast
  • swelling or a lump around the collarbone or under the arm

A lump that’s hard with irregular edges is more likely to be cancerous.

Later signs of breast cancer include:

  • retraction, or inward turning of the nipple
  • enlargement of one breast
  • dimpling of the breast surface
  • an existing lump that gets bigger
  • an “orange peel” texture to the skin
  • poor appetite
  • unintentional weight loss
  • enlarged lymph nodes in the armpit
  • visible veins on the breast

Having one or more of these symptoms doesn’t necessarily mean you have breast cancer. Nipple discharge, for example, can also be caused by an infection. See your doctor for a complete evaluation if you experience any of these signs and symptoms.

Breast cancer isn’t typically associated with people who were assigned male at birth. But male breast cancer can occur in rare instances at any age, although it’s more common in older men.

Many people don’t realize that people assigned male at birth have breast tissue too, and those cells can undergo cancerous changes. Because male breast cells are much less developed than female breast cells, breast cancer isn’t as common in this part of the population.

The most common symptom of breast cancer in people assigned male at birth is a lump in the breast tissue.

Other than a lump, symptoms of male breast cancer include:

  • thickening of the breast tissue
  • nipple discharge
  • redness or scaling of the nipple
  • a nipple that retracts or turns inward
  • unexplained redness, swelling, skin irritation, itchiness, or rash on the breast

Most men don’t regularly check their breast tissue for signs of lumps, so male breast cancer is often diagnosed much later.

Although a lump in the breast is typically associated with breast cancer, these lumps usually aren’t cancer. Most are benign, or noncancerous.

Common causes of benign breast lumps include:

With fat necrosis, the mass can’t be distinguished from a cancerous lump without a biopsy.

Even though the majority of breast lumps are caused by less severe conditions, new, painless lumps are still the most common symptom of breast cancer.

We often associate pain with something wrong, so when people feel tenderness or pain in their breast, they often think of breast cancer. But breast pain is rarely the first noticeable symptom of breast cancer. Several other factors can cause the pain.

Clinically known as mastalgia, breast pain can also be caused by the following:

There are two categories that reflect the nature of breast cancer:

  • Noninvasive (in situ) cancer is cancer that hasn’t spread from the original tissue. This is referred to as stage 0.
  • Invasive (infiltrating) cancer is cancer that’s spread to surrounding tissues. These are categorized as stages 1, 2, 3, or 4.

The tissue affected determines the type of cancer:

  • Ductal carcinoma is a cancer that forms in the lining of the milk ducts. This is the most common type of breast cancer.
  • Lobular carcinoma is cancer in the lobules of the breast. The lobules are where milk is produced.
  • Sarcoma is cancer in the breast’s connective tissue. This is a rare type of breast cancer.

When you visit your doctor with concerns about breast pain, tenderness, or a lump, there are common tests they might perform.

Physical examination

Your doctor will examine your breasts and the skin on your breasts, as well as check for nipple problems and discharge. They may also feel your breasts and armpits to look for lumps.

Medical history

Your doctor will ask you questions about your health history, including any medications you might be taking, as well as the medical history of immediate family members.

Because breast cancer can sometimes be related to your genes, it’s important to tell your doctor about any family history of breast cancer. Your doctor will also ask you about your symptoms, including when you first noticed them.

Mammogram

Your doctor may request a mammogram, which is an X-ray of the breast, to help distinguish between a benign and malignant mass.

Ultrasound

Ultrasonic sound waves can be used to produce an image of breast tissue.

MRI

Your doctor may suggest an MRI scan in conjunction with other tests. This is another noninvasive imaging test used to examine breast tissue.

Biopsy

This involves removing a small amount of breast tissue to be used for testing.

Depending on the type and stage of cancer, treatments can vary. But there are some common practices doctors and specialists use to combat breast cancer:

  • A lumpectomy is when your doctor removes the tumor while leaving your breast intact.
  • A mastectomy is when your doctor surgically removes all of your breast tissue including the tumor and connecting tissue.
  • Chemotherapy is the most common cancer treatment, and it involves the use of anticancer drugs. These drugs interfere with cells’ ability to reproduce.
  • Radiation uses radiation beams to treat cancer directly.
  • Hormone and targeted therapy can be used when hormones play a part in the cancer’s growth.

Despite initial treatment and success, breast cancer can sometimes come back. This is called recurrence. Recurrence happens when a small number of cells escape the initial treatment.

Symptoms of a recurrence in the same place as the first breast cancer are very similar to symptoms of the first breast cancer. They include:

  • a new breast lump
  • changes to the nipple
  • redness or swelling of the breast
  • a new thickening near the mastectomy scar

If breast cancer comes back regionally, it means that the cancer has returned to the lymph nodes or near to the original cancer but not exactly the same place. The symptoms may be slightly different.

Symptoms of a regional recurrence may include:

  • lumps in your lymph nodes or near the collarbone
  • chest pain
  • pain or loss of sensation in your arm or shoulder
  • swelling in your arm on the same side as the original breast cancer

If you’ve had a mastectomy or other surgery related to breast cancer, you might get lumps or bumps caused by scar tissue in the reconstructed breast. This isn’t cancer, but you should let your doctor know about them so they can be monitored.

As with any cancer, early detection and treatment are major factors in determining the outcome. Breast cancer is easily treated and usually curable when detected in the earliest of stages.

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, according to the World Health Organization. Whether you’re concerned about breast pain or tenderness, it’s important to stay informed on risk factors and warning signs of breast cancer.

The best way to fight breast cancer is early detection. Talk with your doctor about when you should start scheduling regular mammograms.

If you’re worried that your breast pain or tenderness could be something serious, make an appointment with your doctor today. If you find a lump in your breast (even if your most recent mammogram was normal), see your doctor.

Read this article in Spanish.