The body scan is a mindfulness meditation practice involving scanning your body for pain, tension, or anything out of the ordinary. It can help you feel more connected to your physical and emotional self.

At this point, you’ve probably heard all about the benefits of meditation and mindfulness. But getting started can feel overwhelming with so many types of meditation to choose from.

With the body scan method, you can become more mindful of your bodily sensations. This knowledge can then make it easier to address what’s wrong physically and emotionally, leading to improved wellness in body and mind.

Experts have found evidence to suggest meditation can promote physical and emotional wellness in multiple ways, such as:

Here’s a look at some of the most heavily researched benefits.

For sleep

A 2019 review suggests mindfulness meditation may help reduce the impact of some types of sleep issues and improve sleep quality.

Many people have difficulty getting restful sleep when they feel worried or stressed. When this is severe, it is referred to as insomnia.

Because meditation can help you relax, let go of troubling thoughts, and feel calmer overall, regular meditation and other mindfulness practices can often ease the distress that’s keeping you awake.

For stress and anxiety

Research supports meditation as a potentially helpful way to relieve anxiety and stress.

A meta-analysis from 2021 suggests that mindfulness and meditation have the potential to reduce stress and anxiety symptoms.

Though more research is needed to separate the effect of mindful practices on mood from other environmental factors, it is clear these can positively impact the ability to manage stress.

For pain

If you’ve experienced significant pain, you probably had trouble thinking about anything else. This is the daily experience of many people living with chronic pain. Understandably, this type of pain can significantly negatively impact your life.

Meditation may not necessarily stop the pain. But outcomes of meditation, such as increased awareness of your body and emotional state, can help change how you think about that pain. Increased awareness and acceptance of pain can lead to an improved outlook.

A 2017 review of 13 studies suggests mindfulness meditation can help reduce effects associated with chronic pain, such as depression or decreased quality of life.

These benefits may have a longer-lasting impact than standard care for chronic pain.

Jon Kabat-Zinn, a meditation teacher and expert on stress, recommends body scan meditations as the most helpful meditation for pain.

You can think of a body scan as a mental X-ray slowly traveling across your body.

Here’s how to give it a try:

  1. Get cozy. Start by getting comfortable. Lie down or sit in a position that allows you to stretch your limbs easily.
  2. Focus. Close your eyes and begin focusing on your breath. Notice the sensation of your breath filling and leaving your lungs as you inhale and exhale.
  3. Choose where to start. Begin anywhere you like — the top of your head, left foot, right hand, right foot. Focus on that spot as you continue breathing slowly and deeply. Then move to another part of your body and do the same.
  4. Pay attention. Open your awareness to sensations of pain, tension, discomfort, or anything out of the ordinary.
  5. Go slow. Spend anywhere from 20 seconds to 1 minute observing these sensations.
  6. Acknowledge. If you begin to notice pain and discomfort, acknowledge and sit with any emotions these sensations bring up. Accept them without criticism. For example, if you feel frustrated and angry, don’t judge yourself for these emotions. Notice them and let them pass.
  7. Breathe. Continue breathing, imagining the pain and tension decreasing with each breath.
  8. Release. Slowly release your mental awareness of that specific part of your body and redirect it to your next area of focus. Some people find it helpful to imagine releasing one body part as they breathe out and moving on to the next as they breathe in.
  9. Move along. Continue the exercise along your body in a way that makes sense to you, whether you move from top to bottom or up one side and down the other.
  10. Note drifting thoughts. As you continue to scan your body, note when your thoughts drift. This will probably happen more than once, so don’t worry. You haven’t failed and can easily get your thoughts back on track. Just gently return your awareness to where you left off scanning.
  11. Visualize and breathe. Once you finish scanning parts of your body, let your awareness travel across your body. Visualize this as liquid filling a mold. Continue inhaling and exhaling slowly as you sit with this awareness of your whole body for several seconds.
  12. Come back. Slowly release your focus and bring your attention back to your surroundings.

The Medito Foundation provides a few variations of the body scan meditation you can try.

If a body scan or meditation doesn’t seem to do much for you the first time, try not to get discouraged. It can take some time to get used to meditation, and that’s completely ok.

Here are a few tips to keep in mind:

Make it a habit

You may notice some improvement immediately. Then again, the body scan might not seem to have any effect.

Many people don’t notice any benefits the first few times they try it. But experts suggest it’s still worth meditating regularly, even if you don’t like meditating.

Consistent meditation can lead to positive changes in your brain, including:

  • improved focus
  • increased compassion and other positive emotions
  • greater ability to cope with unwanted emotions

If it helps, you can think of meditation as an exercise for your brain. Maybe you don’t feel like working up a sweat all the time, especially if you’ve already had a rough day. But once you get going, your workout generally becomes easier, right?

When you finish exercising, you might even feel pretty good, and keeping up an exercise routine usually makes it easier over time.

Don’t stop if you experience negative feelings

Research shows that doing introspective meditation like the body scan does not always immediately result in an improved mood and sense of well-being.

Sometimes, you may feel some negative emotions after a session. This is okay. It means you are becoming more aware of the feelings you already have. Identifying and naming these sensations can help you learn how to cope with them.

In this case, it may be a good idea to add sessions with a mental health professional qualified in treatments such as cognitive behavioral therapy.

Don’t worry about perfection

With meditation, there’s no single “right” approach. Ultimately, the best type of meditation is what works for you.

Many people find it most helpful to meditate at the same time every day and in the same place. This can help you form the habit, but don’t worry too much if you sometimes have to cut it short.

Meditating for 15 minutes or even 5 minutes is better than not meditating.

You’ll probably get distracted, and that’s OK. Everyone does. Instead of giving yourself a hard time, encourage yourself to keep trying.

Remember, you can meditate anywhere

It might be easier to meditate at home, but you can practice meditation anywhere:

  • Fatigued or tense at work? Take a 5-minute break for a quick body scan.
  • Cranky in the morning or at the end of the day? Practice acceptance and compassion with a loving-kindness meditation.

If you find it hard to get comfortable in a traditional meditative pose, such as seated with legs crossed, try lying down, standing up, or even meditating outdoors.

Meditation Safety

You can meditate nearly anywhere as long as you are in a comfortable place where you won’t be disturbed for at least a few minutes. Never meditate when you are driving or operating any machinery.

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Avoid going into meditation with specific goals

You’re likely practicing meditation for a reason. You might want to reduce stress, get better at relaxation, or improve your sleep.

But if you go into it with specific goals, you might feel so focused on achieving them that you have trouble focusing on the sensations in your body. If you start to feel like meditation isn’t working, you might end up more stressed than when you began.

It’s more helpful to start with one simple goal: learning more about what your body has to say.

Meditation continues to gain popularity as a beneficial wellness practice, and many experts recommend it as a helpful way of managing challenging emotions.

While body scan meditation involves little risk, mindfulness meditation can sometimes worsen depression or anxiety. If you notice dark, unwanted thoughts or emotions, check in with a therapist before continuing.

Crystal Raypole has previously worked as a writer and editor for GoodTherapy. Her fields of interest include Asian languages and literature, Japanese translation, cooking, natural sciences, sex positivity, and mental health. In particular, she’s committed to helping decrease stigma around mental health issues.