Beriberi is a disease caused by vitamin B1 deficiency, also known as thiamine deficiency. It occurs most often in people with a diet that consists mostly of white rice or highly refined carbohydrates.

There are two types of beriberi:

  • wet beriberi
  • dry beriberi

Wet beriberi affects the heart and circulatory system. In extreme cases, wet beriberi can cause heart failure.

Dry beriberi damages the nerves and can lead to decreased muscle strength and eventually muscle paralysis. Beriberi can be life threatening if it isn’t treated.

If you have access to foods rich in thiamine, your chances of developing beriberi are low. Today, in the United States, beriberi mostly occurs in people with an alcohol use disorder and may also occur as a complication of weight loss surgery.

Beriberi from other causes is rare in the United States. Still, the disease can be seen in:

  • women who have extreme nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (hyperemesis gravidarum)
  • people with AIDS
  • people following bariatric surgery

What does vitamin B1 do?

The symptoms of beriberi vary depending on the type.

Wet beriberi symptoms include:

Dry beriberi symptoms include:

In extreme cases, beriberi is associated with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Wernicke encephalopathy and Korsakoff syndrome are two forms of brain damage caused by thiamine deficiency.

Wernicke encephalopathy damages regions of the brain called the thalamus and hypothalamus. This condition can cause:

Korsakoff syndrome is the result of permanent damage to the region of the brain where memories form. It can cause:

The main cause of beriberi is a diet low in thiamine. The disease is very rare in regions with access to vitamin-enriched foods, such as certain breakfast cereals and breads.

Beriberi is most common in regions of the world where the diet includes unenriched, processed white rice, which only has a tenth of the amount of thiamine as brown rice, according to the National Institutes of Health.

Other factors may cause thiamine deficiency, as well. These include:

  • alcohol misuse, which can make it hard for your body to absorb and store thiamine
  • genetic beriberi, a rare condition that prevents the body from absorbing thiamine
  • hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid gland)
  • extreme nausea and vomiting in pregnancy
  • bariatric surgery
  • AIDS
  • prolonged diarrhea or use of diuretics (medication that makes you urinate more)
  • undergoing kidney dialysis
  • malnutrition
  • diabetes

Breastfeeding mothers need daily thiamine in their diet. Infants drinking breast milk or formula low in thiamine are at risk for thiamine deficiency.

Thiamine deficiency is also more common in cancer patients. Restrictive diets, eating disorders, and inflammatory bowel disease can also cause thiamine deficiency.

You will need a series of medical tests to determine whether you have beriberi. Blood and urine tests will measure the levels of thiamine in your body.

Doctors will also perform a neurological exam to look for lack of coordination, difficulty walking, droopy eyelids, and weak reflexes. People with later stages of beriberi will show memory loss, confusion, or delusions.

A physical exam will alert your doctor to any heart problems. Rapid heartbeat, swelling of the lower legs, and difficulty breathing are all symptoms of beriberi.

Beriberi is easily treated with thiamine supplements. Your doctor may prescribe a thiamine shot or pill. For severe cases, a healthcare professional will administer intravenous thiamine.

Your progress will be monitored with follow-up blood tests to see how well your body is absorbing the vitamin.

To prevent beriberi, eat a nutrient-dense, balanced diet that includes foods rich in thiamine. These include:

Cooking or processing any of the foods listed above decreases their thiamine content.

If you give your infant formula, you should also check that it contains enough thiamine.
Always be sure to purchase infant formula from a reliable source.

Limiting alcohol consumption helps reduce your risk of developing beriberi. Anyone who has an alcohol use disorder should have routine medical appointments to check for a B1 vitamin deficiency.

If beriberi is diagnosed and treated early, the outlook is good. Nerve and heart damage from beriberi is usually reversible when it’s caught in the early stages. Recovery is often quick once you begin treatment.

If beriberi progresses to Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, the outlook is poor. While treatment can manage symptoms of Wernicke encephalopathy, brain damage from Korsakoff syndrome is often permanent.

Maintaining a health-promoting, balanced diet is important for your health. Talk with your doctor if you think you are showing signs of a thiamine deficiency or if you need advice on how to get the nutrients you need.