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Overwhelmed by all the formula choices available to your baby? You’re not alone. A walk down the formula aisle at the store can send even the most seasoned parents into a panic.

Thing is — there’s no one brand or type of formula that’s universally best for all babies. And all infant formulas you’ll find sold in the United States have to go through the same nutritional and safety testing through the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

That doesn’t mean all formulas are the same, though.

You can find formula in three forms. Powdered and liquid concentrate must be mixed with water before feeding to your baby. Ready-to-eat bottles contain liquid formula that’s already diluted with the appropriate amount of water.

Beyond that, the choices revolve around the content. Most formulas are made from cow’s milk, but you can also find soy and protein hydrolysate formulas for babies who have certain intolerances or allergies.

It’s important to follow the manufacturer’s instructions on how to mix the formula. Diluting the formula with too much water can decrease the nutritional value, while adding too little water can harm baby’s delicate organs.

When we select the “best” options, we aren’t saying that one brand has necessarily been proven better or more effective than all the others. In fact, this isn’t true at all.

A comprehensive review of formula feeding in American Family Physician reveals that there’s no reason to recommend one formula brand over another. Instead, they’re described as “nutritionally interchangeable.”

So, in making this list, the following formulas earn high marks from parents for things like helping baby’s tummy issues, ease of use, store availability, and overall value.

Your baby may do well on one formula and not another due to reasons that are very individual and hard to pin down. As always, we recommend speaking with your pediatric medical provider if you have concerns about your baby’s nutrition or digestion.

Best baby formula for colic

Dreaded colic. If you’re starting to link your baby’s cries to what they’re eating, consider choosing formulas specifically made to address what’s causing those wails.

But, reality check: There’s no evidence to suggest that a certain formula will make your baby better.

Instead, colic tends to ease up between your baby’s 4- and 6-month birthday. And colic formulas may not help if your little one has an allergy, so it’s a good idea to check in with your pediatrician to make sure there’s nothing more at play with their health.

Related: 14 remedies to try for colic

Price guide

  • $ = under $1 per ounce
  • $$ = $1 – $2 per ounce
  • $$$ = Over $2 per ounce

Best baby formula for reflux

Is spit-up becoming more than just a laundry issue in your house? Formula-fed babies actually have higher rates of reflux than breastfed babies. These issues tend to peak around the 4-month mark.

There are formulas on the market that are thickened by rice. They may help decrease the frequency of spit-ups and don’t have any long-term safety concerns.

Best baby formula for gas

Those toots may be cute at first. But your baby may have a lot of discomfort with gas. Keep in mind that severe gas may be a sign of allergy or other medical issue. So, if switching formulas doesn’t help, head in for a check-up.

Enfamil Gentlease Infant Formula

Price: $$

Key features: Enfamil claims that in clinical trials this formula reduced gas and associated fussiness and crying in just one day. This formula also contains a high amount of DHA to help nourish and develop your baby’s brain.

Considerations: Many parents are pleased with this formula and feel it does seem to help their babies. A few noted that they didn’t like the packaging and that the formula left an oily residue in the bottle after feeding.

Best baby formula for constipation

There aren’t many formulas specifically marketed to help with constipation. Constipation is more common in formula-fed babies than in breastfed babies, since breast milk is easier to digest. It’s normal for formula-fed babies to have stools between two and threetimes a day before starting solids and two times a day after starting solids.

Or, your baby might have a different normal. But if they seem to be straining and passing hard stools or suddenly start going longer and longer without a dirty diaper, they may be constipated. You can try a different formula, and speak to your doctor about other ways to get things moving.

Related: How often do breastfed and formula fed babies poop?

Best baby formula for supplementation

Maybe baby will receive formula only part time in combination with breastfeeding. In this case, you may want to find a formula specifically designed for supplementation.

Best baby formula for preemies

Human milk is the ideal choice for preemies, however, it may not always be available. Babies born prematurely may need additional support nutritionally.

As a result, formulas for preemies focus on higher calories — usually 22 to 24 per ounce versus the standard 20 — to help boost weight gain. They may also help promote long-term growth and development.

Best baby formula for allergies

Some babies may be allergic to cow’s milk protein and need hypoallergenic formula — specifically, one where the protein has been broken down either partially or extensively. These formulas are also called protein hydrolysate formulas. They’re for babies who can’t drink milk- or soy-based varieties.

Best organic baby formula

Formulas labeled organic must meet certain standards, like being made without contaminants like prohibited synthetic pesticides and fertilizers. Organic formulas are also free from artificial flavors and colors, growth hormones, preservatives, and other additives.

Earth’s Best Organic Sensitivity Infant Formula

Price: $$

Key features: Earth’s Best’s Sensitivity blend is made with 95 percent less lactose than standard formulas. This means it may be more easily digested by babies who are sensitive to lactose (which is very uncommon). Its dairy ingredients are organic, coming from grass-fed cows, and the formula also contains omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, lutein, and prebiotics to support your baby’s immune system.

Considerations: Some parents explain that they like the formula, but that it can be inconsistent from batch to batch (some more foamy, for example). Others like that this formula tastes like milk, but a few note that they’re unhappy with the high corn syrup solids content. It’s worth noting, though, that corn syrup solids, also sometimes called “maltodextrin,” is a common ingredient in most infant formulas.

Best plant-based baby formula

Fun fact: Around 25 percent of all formula sold in the United States is soy based. These formulas are free of both lactose and cow’s milk protein and may be better digested by some babies with certain medical conditions.

Talk with your doctor before switching to soy, however. Some studies show that preterm babies fed soy gain significantly less weight than those on standard formulas.

Best budget baby formulas

Your baby drinks a ton of formula in the first year. So, you may just be thinking of the bottom line. Good news for you — beyond the well-known formula manufacturers, there are some solid generic options that provide the same nutrition and safety on a dime.

Parent’s Choice Tender Infant Formula

Price: $

Key features: Walmart’s Parent’s Choice Tender formula is a generic offering of Gerber Good Start Gentle. It combines prebiotics and DHA — all without artificial growth hormones or genetic engineering. Many parents share that this formula helps with constipation issues.

Considerations: Your local Walmart may not carry this product, so you may have to buy it online. Some parents say it has a cheesy smell that isn’t appealing. And a few said this formula made their babies gassy.

At the most basic level, there’s really no wrong choice when it comes to formula. Since everything you’ll find is technically safe to use, that means that what you put in your cart is really up to you, your preferences, and your budget.

You might ask yourself if a certain brand or type:

  • is easy to find at a local store or online
  • has a price point that fits within your budget
  • meets your need for convenience (powder vs. liquid or pre-portioned)
  • is appropriate for your child’s special needs (allergy, prematurity, etc.)

Beyond that, you’ll need to see what works best for your baby. Know that most formulas contain 20 calories per ounce. Unless your doctor tells you otherwise, you should choose a brand that contains iron (most do) to help prevent iron deficiency anemia.

Anything else that’s added to the formula, like fatty acids and other ingredients “found in breast milk,” are completely safe, but they may or may not provide the benefits written on the box.

Related: Weaning 101: Starting your baby on food

Once you’ve chosen your formula, you’ll want to make sure you prepare it in a safe way.

  • Wash your hands with soap and water before grabbing bottles and preparing your formula. While you’re at it, make sure your bottles are clean and in working order.
  • Check the date on your formula container to make sure it’s not expired. Examine the container for breaks in the seal, rust marks, leaks, and other signs that the formula is compromised.
  • Use water from a safe source. You might consider boiling water for a minute and cooling before mixing bottles as well. And if you don’t think your tap water is safe to use, you may want to purchase bottled water.
  • Measure out the water first before adding powder or liquid concentrate. It’s very important to follow the directions on the box for how much water you’ll use. Diluting formula with too much water or too little water can lead to serious health problems for your baby.
  • If you choose to warm your baby’s bottle, do so by putting the bottle in a pot of warm water on the stove. Heat to body temperature. Never use a microwave to heat formula.
  • Use prepared formula within 2 hours or store it in the refrigerator for 24 hours. And discard any formula your baby doesn’t finish after a feeding.
  • Feed your baby in an upright position and burp often to help relieve symptoms of colic. You may also want to look into curved bottles or those that use collapsible bags to reduce air intake.
  • If your baby is under 3 months old, was born prematurely, or has other health issues, your doctor may have additional guidelines for preparing formula.

Looking to switch formulas?

Contrary to popular belief, you don’t need to follow any specific instructions or wait any length of time before switching formulas. You can offer one at one feed and another at the next. You can even mix two types, provided you dilute them appropriately with water.

But while it’s safe to switch between brands and types, you may not want to switch frequently. The Seattle Mom Doc explains that you shouldn’t “react to every single poop.” While switching between formulas for cost or convenience may be fine, don’t do it repeatedly in search of a fix for things like colic or gas.

In other words, try giving your baby one type of formula for 1 to 2 weeks before switching.

There are many formula options available. Breast milk is always recommended as the first choice for a baby’s optimal health, but all formulas will meet the basic nutritional needs of your baby. The key is preparing them in a safe way.

Still don’t know which formula to choose? Ask your pediatrician. Your child’s doctor may be able to point you in the right direction based on your baby’s health history or your personal preferences. Same goes with switching formula brands or types.

As an added bonus, your pediatrician’s office may even have coupons or free samples so you can try before you buy.