Adenomyosis can cause back pain, especially in the lower back. The pain may worsen before or during your period.

Adenomyosis occurs when the tissue that lines the uterus grows into the muscular uterine wall.

This can cause intense uterine pain, especially during vaginal penetration. Adenomyosis is also associated with long, painful, and heavy periods. It could also cause back pain, especially in the lower back.

Recent data suggests that 20–35% of people with uteruses have adenomyosis, although it’s unclear how common it is due to underreporting and underdiagnosis.

Adenomyosis may cause referred back pain. Referred pain is when the discomfort you feel in one part of your body is caused by pain in another region. This happens because the nerves in your body are all connected.

When you encounter something that triggers pain, your nervous system carries the signal to your brain, which signals to your body that you’re experiencing pain. Sometimes, your brain sends a pain signal to a different body part than where the pain comes from.

In this case, pain in your uterus may cause pain in your back. If you have adenomyosis, you might experience painful menstrual cramps, chronic pelvic pain, and pain during penetrative sex.

A 2011 case study details a situation where a woman with adenomyosis had referred lower back pain intermittently for 4 years, which often felt worse around her period.

Pelvic pain — a common symptom of adenomyosis — may also radiate throughout the pelvis to the back of your body, affecting your lower back.

Researchers have not studied the link between adenomyosis and back pain in detail. However, many studies — such as this 2021 study and this 2023 study — have noted that back pain is a common experience for people with the condition.

Most research mentions lower back pain as a symptom of adenomyosis.

Anecdotally, some people with adenomyosis report experiencing back pain in the middle and upper part of their back, but this could be caused by another condition.

In a 2011 case study, a woman experienced lower back pain. Her pain seemed to get worse before and during menstruation, suggesting that menstrual cramps may play a role in causing back aches.

However, many people with adenomyosis experience chronic pelvic pain. This may cause constant back pain.

Another common adenomyosis symptom is dyspareunia, which is pain during penetrative vaginal sex. This pain may be solely in your vagina or throughout your pelvic region. This could also cause referred back pain during sex.

Some adenomyosis treatments might help reduce pain and cramping, thus reducing your back pain.

If a doctor or medical professional prescribes or suggests certain medications for treating your adenomyosis-related pain, continuing this treatment may help reduce cramping, which might reduce back pain.

Certain home treatments may also help soothe your discomfort.

You can try:

The 2011 case study noted that the woman with lower back pain felt some relief after a chiropractic adjustment.

Adenomyosis may lead to back pain, including lower back pain. However, other conditions can also cause back pain, including kidney infections, arthritis, and muscle strains.

Seek immediate medical help if you have back pain in your lower or middle back accompanied by symptoms of a urinary tract infection, fever, or a lack of bowel control.

Consider making an appointment with a healthcare professional if back pain affects your daily life. They may refer you to a physiotherapist or specialist.

If your adenomyosis symptoms worsen or do not improve after treatment, it may be a good idea to make a medical appointment and revisit your current treatment plan.

Sian Ferguson is a freelance health and cannabis writer based in Cape Town, South Africa. She’s passionate about empowering readers to take care of their mental and physical health through science-based, empathetically delivered information.