An abdominal film, also known as an abdominal X-ray, helps your doctor assess potential problems in your abdominal cavity, stomach, and intestines. Your doctor may perform this procedure to help detect a particular condition such as kidney stones or gallstones.
Instead of examining the entire abdominal area, your doctor may order a KUB X-ray, which is a variation of an abdominal film that focuses on the kidneys, ureters, and bladder. The procedure gets its name from the first letter of each of these body parts.
Your doctor might order an abdominal X-ray if you’re having one or more of the following symptoms:
- chronic nausea
- ongoing vomiting
- abdominal pain
- flank or back pain
- abdominal swelling
Your doctor may also order this test if they think that you might have any of the following conditions:
- an abdominal aortic aneurysm
- Addison’s disease
- anemia (idiopathic aplastic or secondary aplastic)
- atheroembolic renal disease
- biliary atresia
- blind loop syndrome
- chronic renal failure
- Echinococcus infection
- Hirschsprung’s disease
- intestinal pseudo-obstruction (primary or idiopathic)
- intussusception (in children)
- kidney failure
- a kidney injury
- necrotizing enterocolitis
- renal artery stenosis
- renal cell carcinoma
- toxic megacolon
- a ureter injury
- Wilms’ tumor
An abdominal film can also help your doctor locate the precise position of an object you’ve swallowed. Alternatively, your doctor might use this test to make sure that a tube or catheter is in the correct location. These are often placed to allow for drainage or the administration of fluids or gases.
Unless your doctor informs you otherwise, you won’t need to fast, change your diet, or do anything major to prepare for an abdominal film.
Tell your doctor if you’re pregnant. Abdominal films involve low levels of radiation and are typically not recommended for pregnant women. If you’re pregnant, your doctor will probably choose to do an ultrasound to avoid any risk to the fetus.
Tell your doctor about any medications you’re taking. This is particularly important if you have taken Pepto-Bismol or another medication containing bismuth in the four days before the abdominal film. Bismuth can affect the clarity of the images, so your doctor needs to know if you’ve taken it.
Inform your doctor if you have recently had an X-ray test that involved barium contrast material. Similar to the bismuth in Pepto-Bismol, barium can prevent a clear picture in your abdominal film.
When you arrive at the office for your abdominal X-ray, you’ll need to remove any jewelry. You’ll probably also need to change into a hospital gown.
You’ll likely need to lie down on your back on a table. In some cases, you may need to lie on your side or even stand up instead. Depending on what your doctor is looking for, you might need to have X-rays taken from several angles. This means you might be asked to change positions.
You must remain perfectly still during the X-ray. You may even need to hold your breath at certain points to ensure that your abdomen doesn’t move.
An abdominal film can reveal various issues in the abdomen. These include:
- a mass
- fluid buildup
- an injury
- a blockage
- a foreign object
- stones in the gallbladder, bladder, kidneys, or ureters
The film also allows your doctor to identify whether certain organs are enlarged or out of their proper position.
Remember that an abdominal film only lets your doctor see what’s going on in your abdomen. It does not detect all possible problems or give definitive answers to all of your questions. Your doctor will discuss the implications of any issues detected in the abdominal film. Some findings may require further tests.
An abdominal film is a low-risk procedure. You’ll be exposed to low levels of radiation, as radiation is required to take X-rays. Depending on the reason for the abdominal film, you may feel pain or discomfort from lying on your back or side for the procedure.