Glucose is a form of sugar, formed from the breakdown of foods we eat, especially carbohydrates. Wh...
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Glucose is a form of sugar, formed from the breakdown of foods we eat, especially carbohydrates. Whenever you eat, the level of glucose in your blood rises. People with diabetes have too much glucose - sugar - in their blood. This occurs because of problems with a hormone called insulin. Insulin allows glucose to move from the bloodstream into cells for use as fuel. Insulin is produced by cells in your pancreas. This gland, which is located in your abdomen, has patches of tissue called islets of Langerhans. The majority of islet cells are beta cells, which normally produce, store, and release small granules of insulin into your bloodstream. The insulin binds to receptors on the membrane of most of the cells in your body. This activates protein molecules on the membrane that allow the glucose to enter the cell. Normally, the beta cells release small amounts of insulin continuously and also release insulin in surges when blood glucose levels increase. In people with type 1 diabetes, no insulin is produced in response to blood glucose levels. People with type 2 diabetes produce insulin but their bodies don't use it properly. High blood sugar - called hyperglycemia - for an extended period of time can damage the kidneys, nerves, heart, and eyes. Very high blood sugar is a medical emergency.