What causes sunken chest? 6 possible conditions

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What Is Pectus Excavatum?

Pectus excavatum is a Latin term that means “hollowed chest.” People with this congenital condition have a distinctly sunken chest. A concave sternum (breastbone) may exist at birth, or it may develop later, usually during adolescence. Other common names include “cobbler’s chest,” “funnel chest,” and “sunken chest.”

About 37 percent of people with pectus excavatum also have a close relative with the condition. This suggests that it may be hereditary. Pectus excavatum is the most common chest wall anomaly among children.

In severe cases, it can interfere with the function of the heart and lungs. In mild cases, it can cause self-image problems. Some patients with this condition often avoid activities such as swimming that make hiding the condition difficult.

Symptoms of Severe Pectus Excavatum

Patients with severe pectus excavatum may experience shortness of breath and chest pain. Surgery may be necessary to relieve discomfort and prevent heart and breathing abnormalities.

Physicians use chest X-rays or computed tomography (CT) scans to create images of the internal structures of the chest. These are used to measure the severity of the curvature. The Haller index is a standardized measurement used to calculate the severity of the condition.

The Haller index is calculated by dividing the width of the rib cage by the distance from the sternum to the spine. A normal index is about 2.5. An index greater than 3.25 is considered severe enough to warrant surgical correction. Patients have the option of doing nothing if the curvature is mild.

Surgical Interventions

Surgery may be invasive or minimally invasive.

The Ravitch Procedure

The Ravitch procedure is an invasive surgical technique pioneered in the late 1940s. The technique involves opening the chest cavity with a wide horizontal incision. Small sections of rib cartilage are removed and the sternum is flattened.

Struts (metal bars) may be implanted to hold the altered cartilage and bones in place. Drains are placed at either side of the incision, and the incision is stitched back together. Struts can be removed, but are intended to remain in place indefinitely.

Complications are typically minimal, and a hospital stay of less than a week is common. In a study of 375 patients treated with this procedure at the UCLA School of Medicine over a 30-year period, more than 97 percent had a “very good” or “excellent” result (Fonkalsrud, et al. 2000).

The Nuss Procedure

The Nuss procedure was developed in the 1980s. It is a minimally invasive procedure. It involves making two small cuts on either side of the chest, slightly below the level of the nipples. A third small incision allows surgeons to insert a miniature camera, which is used to guide the insertion of a gently curved metal bar. The bar is rotated so it curves outward once it’s in place beneath the bones and cartilage of the upper ribcage. This forces the sternum outward.

A second bar may be attached perpendicular to the first to help keep the curved bar in place. The incisions are closed with stitches, and temporary drains are placed at or near the sites of the incisions. This technique requires no cutting or removal of cartilage or bone.

The metal bars are typically removed during an outpatient procedure about two years after the initial surgery in young patients. By then, correction is expected to be permanent. The bars may not be removed for three to five years or may be left in place permanently in adults. The procedure will work best in children, whose bones and cartilage are still growing.

Complications of Pectus Excavatum Surgery

Surgical correction has an excellent success rate. However, any surgical procedure involves some pain, the risk of infection, and the possibility that the correction will be less effective than expected. Scars are unavoidable, but are fairly minimal with the Nuss procedure.

On the Horizon

Doctors are presently evaluating a new technique: the magnetic mini-mover procedure. This experimental procedure involves implanting a powerful magnet within the chest wall. A second magnet is attached to the outside of the chest. The magnets generate enough force to gradually remodel the sternum and ribs, forcing them outward. The external magnet is worn as a brace for a prescribed number of hours per day.

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See a list of possible causes in order from the most common to the least.

1

Scoliosis

Scoliosis is an unnatural curvature of the spine. The normal shape of the spine includes a top-of-the-shoulder curve and a lower back curve. Scoliosis causes the spine to curve from side to side or in an "S" or "C...

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2

Rickets

Rickets is a nutritional disorder that can develop if you do not get enough vitamin D, calcium, or phosphate. Rickets leads to poor functioning of a bone's growth plate (growing edge), softened and weakened bones...

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3

Marfan's Syndrome

Marfan syndrome is an inherited disorder of the connective tissue (tissue that provides the support for the skeletal structure and all organs of the body) that affects normal body growth.

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4

Achondrogenesis

Achondrogenesis is a rare and severe group of genetic disorders that results in a short trunk, small limbs, and a narrow chest. It occurs when a person's body does not produce enough growth hormone.

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5

Homocystinuria

Homocystinuria is an inherited disorder that keeps the body from processing the essential amino acid methionine. Amino acids are the building blocks of protein. Methionine occurs naturally in various proteins. It i...

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6

Aarskog Syndrome

Aarskog syndrome is a very rare genetic disorder caused by a mutation on the X-chromosome that can affect a child's stature, facial features, genitalia, muscles, and bones. It primarily affects males.

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This feature is for informational purposes only and should not be used to diagnose.
Please consult a healthcare professional if you have health concerns.
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