What causes seizures? 77 possible conditions

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Seizures

Seizures are changes in the brain’s electrical activity. This can cause dramatic, noticeable symptoms or even no symptoms at all. The symptoms of a severe seizure are often widely recognized, including violent shaking and loss of control. However, mild seizures can also be a sign of a significant medical problem, so recognizing them is important. Because some seizures can lead to injury or be evidence of an underlying medical condition, it is important to seek treatment if you experience them.

What Are the Types of Seizures?

Several different seizure types exist. One example is non-epileptic seizures, which result from injury. This includes a blow to the head or an illness. When the condition is treated, the seizures go away.

Partial seizures are associated with epilepsy, a condition that causes repeated seizures. This seizure type happens on only one side of the brain. As a result, one side of the body is affected during a seizure. Other names for partial seizures include focal, Jacksonian, and temporal lobe seizures.

Generalized seizures take place on both sides of the brain. This seizure type affects both sides of the body. This includes the grand mal or tonic-clonic seizure, which is most associated with epilepsy.

Petit mal seizures are another generalized seizure example. Also known as absence seizures, these seizures have few physical symptoms but may involve a person staring off into space for several seconds. The person’s attention cannot be captured during this time.

What Are the Symptoms of a Seizure?

You can experience both partial and generalized seizures at the same time or one can precede the other. Symptoms can last anywhere from a few seconds to 15 minutes per episode.

Some seizures occur with warning signs before the seizure takes place. These include:

  • sudden feelings of fear or anxiousness
  • feeling sick to your stomach
  • dizziness
  • changes in vision

Seizure symptoms, such as the following, take place after these symptoms and indicate a seizure in progress:

  • a blackout of time, followed by confusion
  • uncontrollable muscle spasms
  • drooling or frothing at the mouth
  • falling
  • experiencing a strange taste in your mouth
  • clenching teeth
  • sudden, rapid eye movements
  • making unusual noises, such as grunting
  • losing control of bladder or bowel function
  • sudden mood changes

What Causes the Condition?

Seizures can stem from a number of health conditions. Anything that affects the body also may disturb the brain and lead to a seizure. Some examples include:

  • alcohol withdrawal
  • bites and/or stings
  • brain infection, such as meningitis
  • brain injury during childbirth
  • brain defect present at birth
  • choking
  • drug abuse
  • drug withdrawals
  • electrolyte imbalance
  • electric shock
  • epilepsy
  • extremely high blood pressure
  • fever
  • head trauma
  • kidney or liver failure
  • low blood glucose levels
  • stroke

Seizures can run in families. Notify your physician if you or anyone in your family has a history of seizures.

In some instances, especially with young children, there may be no known seizure cause.

What Are the Effects of Seizures?

If left untreated, seizures can worsen in terms of symptoms and become progressively longer in duration.

Extremely long seizures can lead to coma or death.

Seizures also can lead to injury, such as falls or trauma to the body if convulsions are involved. For this reason, it is important for those with epilepsy to wear a medical identification that helps emergency responders identify that person.

A person who experiences seizures also should notify friends and family of how to care for the person while a seizure is occurring. This includes taking steps to reduce the risk of injury like cushioning your head, loosening tight clothing, and turning you on your side if vomiting occurs.

How Are Seizures Diagnosed?

Physicians can have a difficult time diagnosing seizure types. Your doctor may suggest many tests to accurately diagnose a seizure to ensure treatment recommendations will be effective.

Your doctor will consider your full medical history and the events leading up to the seizure. For example, conditions such as migraine headaches, sleep disorders, and extreme psychological stress can cause seizure-like symptoms.

Lab tests may help to further rule out other conditions that can cause seizure-like activity. These include:

  • blood testing to check for electrolyte imbalances
  • spinal tap to rule out infection
  • toxicology screening to test for drugs, poisons, or toxins

An electroencephalography or EEG test can help a physician diagnose a seizure. These tests measure your brain waves. Viewing brain waves during a seizure can help a physician diagnose the seizure type.

Imaging scans such as a CT scan or MRI scan also can help by providing a clear picture of the brain, allowing your doctor to see any abnormalities like blocked blood flow or a tumor.

How Is the Condition Prevented?

In many instances, a seizure cannot be prevented. However, maintaining a healthy lifestyle can give you the best chance at reducing your risk. This includes getting plenty of sleep, eating a healthy diet, and exercising regularly.

Engaging in stress-reducing techniques may help to reduce seizures. You also should refrain from taking illegal drugs.

If you are on medication for epilepsy or other medical conditions, be sure to take them as directed to prevent seizures.

How Is the Condition Treated?

The area around a person should be cleared during a seizure to prevent possible injury. The person should be placed on his or her side with the head cushioned.

Stay with the person and contact emergency responders as soon as possible if the seizure lasts longer than two to five minutes, if the person does not awaken after the seizure, or if he or she experiences repeat seizures.

Treatments for seizures vary based upon the seizure’s cause. By treating the cause of the seizures, you may be able to prevent future seizures from occurring.

If the seizures are due to epilepsy, treatments include:

  • medications
  • surgery to correct brain abnormalities
  • nerve stimulation
  • special diet, known as a ketogenic diet

With regular treatment, those with epilepsy can experience a reduction or cessation of seizure symptoms.

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See a list of possible causes in order from the most common to the least.

1

Epilepsy Overview

Epilepsy is a neurological condition caused by malfunctioning brain cells that result in seizures. There is no cure for this disorder but episodes can become less frequent.

Read more »

2

Head Injury

This condition is considered a medical emergency. Urgent care may be required.

A head injury could be an injury to the brain, skull, or scalp. It can vary in severity depending on the cause. In some cases face swelling can be a sign of a head injury.

Read more »

3

Eclampsia

This condition is considered a medical emergency. Urgent care may be required.

Eclampsia is a rare but severe condition that causes seizures during pregnancy. Seizures are periods of disturbed brain activity that can cause episodes of staring, decreased alertness, and violent shakin...

Read more »

4

Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizure

This condition is considered a medical emergency. Urgent care may be required.

A generalized tonic-clonic seizure, sometimes called a grand mal seizure, is a disturbance in the functioning of both sides of your brain. This disturbance sends out electrical signals to your muscles, nerves, o...

Read more »

5

Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium

This condition is considered a medical emergency. Urgent care may be required.

Alcohol withdrawal delirium (AWD) is the most serious form of alcohol withdrawal. It causes sudden and severe problems in your brain and nervous system. Approximately five percent of hospital patients being treated fo...

Read more »

6

Intracranial Hemorrhages

Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is bleeding inside the skull. It is a life-threatening emergency. If you think you or someone you know is experiencing ICH, go to the emergency room right away or call 911. ...

Read more »

7

Cerebral Palsy

Cerebral palsy is a disorder of muscle movement and coordination caused by an injury to a child's brain that occurs before birth or during infancy. It affects the part of the brain that controls body movement. Othe...

Read more »

8

Concussion

This condition is considered a medical emergency. Urgent care may be required.

A concussion is a mild traumatic brain injury. Usually it occurs after an impact to your head or after a whiplash-type injury. A concussion can cause many severe symptoms that affect brain function.

Read more »

9

Brain Hypoxia

Brain hypoxia, also called cerebral hypoxia, is decreased oxygen in the brain. You are at risk for this condition if you are drowning, choking, suffocating, or in cardiac arrest. Brain injury and carbon monoxid...

Read more »

10

Low Blood Sodium (Hyponatremia)

Low blood sodium, or hyponatremia, occurs when water and sodium are out of balance in your body. A quick drop in sodium levels can cause weakness, headache, nausea, and muscle cramps.

Read more »

11

Skull Fractures

This condition is considered a medical emergency. Urgent care may be required.

A skull fracture is any break in the cranial bone , also known as the skull. There are many types of skull fractures, but only one cause: an impact or a blow to the head that is strong enough to break the bone. Th...

Read more »

12

Brain Cancer

Brain cancer is anovergrowth of cells in the brain that form masses called tumors. Cancerous (malignant) brain tumors tend to grow very quickly. They disrupt the way your body works, and this can be life threatening...

Read more »

13

Malignant Hypertension (Arteriolar Nephrosclerosis)

Hypertension (high blood pressure) is a common condition that affects one in three Americans. High blood pressure is diagnosed if your blood pressure is over 120 systolic and/or 80 diasto

Read more »

14

Amphetamine Dependence

People who have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder sometimes require amphetamines to help them cope. Some people take amphetamines to treat narcolepsy, a sleep disorder. Amphetamines are a type of stimulant, ...

Read more »

15

Heat Emergencies

This condition is considered a medical emergency. Urgent care may be required.

Heat emergencies are health crises caused by exposure to hot weather and sun. Heat emergencies have three stages: heat cramps, heat exhaustion, and heatstroke. All three stages are serious. If left untreated, the firs...

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16

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

This condition is considered a medical emergency. Urgent care may be required.

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) refers to bleeding within the subarachnoid space, which is the area between the brain and the tissues that cover the brain. The subarachnoid space is the space through which th...

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17

Low Blood Sugar (Hypoglycemia)

This condition is considered a medical emergency. Urgent care may be required.

Also known as hypoglycemia, low blood sugar can be a dangerous condition. People often complain about low blood sugar. However, serious hypoglycemia is rare in adults and children over the age of 10 who are no...

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18

Brain Aneurysm

This condition is considered a medical emergency. Urgent care may be required.

An aneurysm in the brain is a weak area in an artery in the brain that bulges out and fills with blood. It may also be called an intracranial (skull) aneurysm or a cerebral (brain) aneurysm. A brain aneurysm is ...

Read more »

19

Intracerebral Hemorrhage

This condition is considered a medical emergency. Urgent care may be required.

An intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) occurs when blood suddenly bursts into brain tissue, causing damage to the brain, which may present symptoms similar to that of a stroke. Lobar intracerebral hemorrhages occur in th...

Read more »

20

Subdural Hematoma

This condition is considered a medical emergency. Urgent care may be required.

A subdural hematoma refers to an accumulation of blood on the brain's surface beneath the skull. Subdural hematomas may be life threatening. They usually result from a head injury.There are two types of subdura...

Read more »

This feature is for informational purposes only and should not be used to diagnose.
Please consult a healthcare professional if you have health concerns.
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