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There are 158 possible causes of nausea

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What Are Nausea and Vomiting?

Vomiting is an uncontrollable reflex that expels the contents of the stomach through the mouth. It is also called being sick, or throwing up. Nausea is the term used to describe the feeling that you might vomit, but are not actually vomiting.

Both symptoms are very common and can be caused by a wide range of factors. They occur in both children and adults, although they are probably most common in pregnant women and patients undergoing cancer treatments.

What Causes Nausea and Vomiting?

Nausea and vomiting may occur together or separately. They can be caused by a number of physical and psychological conditions.

Nausea

The most common causes of nausea are intense pain—usually from an injury or illness—and the first trimester of pregnancy. There are also a number of other possible causes including motion sickness, emotional stress, indigestion, food poisoning, viruses, and exposure to chemical toxins. If you suffer from gallbladder disease, you are also likely to feel nauseous.

You may find that certain smells bring on the feeling of nausea. This is a very common symptom during the first trimester of pregnancy, although it can also occur in people who are not pregnant. Nausea that is pregnancy-induced usually goes away by the second or third trimester.

Vomiting in Children

The most common causes of vomiting in children are viral infections and food poisoning. However, vomiting can also be caused by severe motion sickness, coughing, high fevers, and overeating.

In very young infants, blocked intestines can also cause persistent vomiting. The intestines may be blocked by a hernia, gallstones, or tumors. This is rare, but should be investigated.

Vomiting in Adults

Most adults rarely vomit. When it does occur, vomiting is usually caused by a bacterial or viral infection or a type of food poisoning. In some cases, vomiting can also be caused by other illnesses, especially if they lead to a headache or high fever.

Chronic Stomach Conditions

Chronic (long-term) stomach conditions can often cause nausea and vomiting, along with other symptoms, such as diarrhoea, constipation, and stomach pain. These chronic conditions include food intolerances, such as gluten intolerance (Celiac disease), dairy protein and lactose intolerance.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common stomach condition that causes bloating, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, fatigue, and cramping. It is caused by parts of the gut becoming overactive, and is usually diagnosed by identifying symptoms and ruling out other stomach and bowel conditions.

Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory bowel disease that commonly affects the intestines, though it can occur anywhere in the digestive tract. Crohn’s disease is an autoimmune condition in which the body attacks its own healthy gut tissue, causing inflammation, nausea, vomiting, and pain. It is usually diagnosed using a colonoscopy, a procedure where the colon is explored using a small camera. A stool sample may also be required.

Lifestyle Choices

Certain lifestyle choices can increase your chances of experiencing nausea and vomiting. Consuming a large amount of alcohol can cause damage to the lining of the gut or react with stomach acid. Both of these will cause nausea and vomiting. In some cases, excessive alcohol consumption can also cause bleeding in the digestive tract.

Eating Disorders

An eating disorder—where a person adjusts their eating habits and behaviours based on an abnormal body image—can also cause nausea and vomiting. Bulimia is a condition in which vomiting is induced deliberately to purge the stomach of any food that has been consumed. Anorexia nervosa sufferers may also feel nausea due to starvation and an excess of stomach acid.

Serious Conditions

Though rare, vomiting can sometimes occur as a symptom of a more serious condition. This includes meningitis, appendicitis, a concussion, a brain tumor, and migraine headaches. Persistent vomiting should always be investigated by a doctor.

Emergency Care

If you suffer from nausea or vomiting for more than a week, you should seek medical care. Most cases of vomiting clear up within six to 24 hours after the first attack.

Under 6 Years Old

Emergency care should be sought for any child under 6 years old who:

  • has both vomiting and diarrhea
  • is showing symptoms of dehydration, including wrinkled skin, irritability, a weak pulse, or reduced consciousness
  • has been vomiting for more than two or three hours
  • has a fever of above 100 degrees F
  • has not urinated in more than six hours

Over 6 Years Old

Children over six years old should receive emergency medical care if:

  • vomiting has lasted for more than 24 hours
  • there are symptoms of dehydration
  • the child has not urinated in more than six hours
  • the child has a fever higher than 102 degrees F

Adults

Adults should seek emergency medical care if they have any of the following symptoms:

  • a severe headache
  • a stiff neck
  • lethargy
  • confusion
  • blood in the vomit
  • a rapid pulse
  • rapid breathing
  • a fever of over 101 degrees F
  • decreased responsiveness
  • both diarrhea and vomiting
  • severe abdominal pain

Treating Nausea and Vomiting

There are a number of ways to relieve nausea and vomiting, both at home and by using medications from the doctor.

Self-Treatment for Nausea

  • consume only light, plain foods, such as bread and crackers
  • avoid any foods that have strong flavors, are very sweet, or are greasy or fried
  • drink cold liquids
  • avoid any activity after eating
  • have smaller, more frequent meals

Self-Treatment for Vomiting

  • drink a large amount of clear fluids to remain hydrated
  • avoid solid foods of any kind until vomiting has stopped
  • rest
  • avoid using medications that may upset the stomach, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, and blood thinners
  • use an oral rehydrating solution to replace lost electrolytes

Medical Care

Before prescribing medication, you doctor will ask questions about when the nausea and vomiting began and when it is at its worst. You may be asked about your eating habits and whether anything makes the vomiting and nausea better or worse.

There are a number of prescription medications that can be used to control nausea and vomiting, including medications than can be taken during pregnancy. These include dolasetron (Anzemet), granesitron (Granisol), and trimethobenzamide (Tigan).

Potential Complications of Persistent Vomiting

Most nausea and vomiting will clear up on its own, unless it is caused by an underlying chronic condition. However, persistent vomiting can cause dehydration and malnutrition. You may also find that your hair and nails become weak and brittle, and that constant vomiting has decayed your tooth enamel.

How Can Nausea and Vomiting Be Prevented?

You can avoid nausea by eating smaller meals throughout the day, eating slowly, and resting after eating. Some people find that avoiding certain food groups and spicy foods prevents nausea.

If you do start to feel nauseous, eat plain crackers before getting up, and try to consume a high protein food, such as cheese or lean meat, before you go to sleep.

If you are vomiting, try to drink small amounts of a sugary liquid, such as a soda or fruit juice, or drink ginger ale or eat ginger to help settle your stomach. Avoid acidic juices, such as orange juice, because this may upset your stomach further.

For motion sickness, over-the-counter medications, such as meclizine (Bonine), can lessen the effects. Limit snacks during car rides and encourage anyone prone to motion sickness to look straight out of a front window.

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Possible Causes - Listed in order from the most common to the least.

1

Nausea & Vomitting

Vomiting is an uncontrollable reflex that expels the contents of the stomach through the mouth. It is also called being sick, or throwing up. Nausea is the term used to describe the feeling that you might vomit, but ar...

Read more »

2

Gastritis

Gastritis is acute or chronic inflammation of the protective lining of the stomach. It

Read more »

3

Pregnancy

Bleeding or spotting, increased need to urinate, tender breasts, fatigue, nausea, and missed period are signs of pregnancy.

Read more »

4

The Many Sides of Bacterial Gastroenteritis

Bacterial infections are common causes of gastrointestinal infections. This type of infection is also called "food poisoning" and is often caused by poor hygiene or ingesting foods contaminated with bacteria.

Read more »

5

Food Poisoning

This condition is considered a medical emergency. Urgent care may be required.

Food poisoning occurs when you consume foods contaminated with bacteria, viruses, or parasites. Symptoms are usually uncomfortable but not severe. Serious reactions can be life threatening and require medical treatment.

Read more »

6

Food Allergy Basics

Food allergies are overblown responses by the immune system to foods that aren't typically harmful - like eggs and peanuts. Continue reading and learn more about food allergies, and how to prevent or treat sever...

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7

Labyrinthitis

Labyrinthitis is a disorder of the inner ear in which a nerve that detects head movement becomes inflamed. It causes dizziness, nausea, vertigo, and potentially permanent loss of hearing.

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8

Motion Sickness

Motion sickness is a sensation of wooziness that usually occurs when someone is traveling by car, boat, plane, or train. It can cause an upset stomach, nausea, cold sweats, dizziness, and headache.

Read more »

9

Migraine with Aura

Migraine is a disorder characterized by repeated attacks of severe headache. Symptoms include throbbing or pulsating pain, usually on only one side of the head, and can last between four hours and three days.

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10

Types of Acid Reflux

Acid reflux symptoms are caused when stomach contents flow up from the stomach back into the esophagus, causing symptoms like heartburn, stomach pain, and burping.

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11

Menieres Disease

Meniere's disease is a disorder that affects the inner ear. The inner ear contains tubes filled with fluid called "labyrinths." The inner ear is responsible for your balance, as well as hearing. This disorder cause...

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12

Head Injury

This condition is considered a medical emergency. Urgent care may be required.

Injuries to your brain, skull, or scalp are all types of head injury. A head injury may be mild or severe depending on what caused it. Some injuries produce bleeding within your skull. Others cause damage on the outsid...

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13

Painful Menstrual Periods

Menstruation is a monthly occurrence for women in which the body sheds the lining of the uterus (womb), which is then passed through a small opening in the cervix and out through the vaginal canal. Some pain, cramping...

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14

Peptic Ulcer

Peptic ulcers are sores that develop in the lining of the stomach, esophagus, and small intestine as a result of erosion from stomach acids. Peptic ulcers are a fairly common health problem, and it is estimated tha...

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15

Concussion

This condition is considered a medical emergency. Urgent care may be required.

A concussion is a mild traumatic brain injury. It can occur after an impact to your head or after a whiplash-type injury that causes your head and brain to shake quickly back and forth. Concussions are usually not lif...

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16

E. coli Infection

E. coli is a type of bacteria that normally live in the intestines of people and animals. However, some types of E. coli, particularly E. coli 0157:H7, can cause intestinal infection. Symptoms of intestinal infectio...

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17

Angina Pectoris

Angina is a type of chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to the heart. Lower blood flow means your heart isn't getting enough oxygen. This pain often occurs with physical activity or stress. Stable angina, als...

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18

Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium

This condition is considered a medical emergency. Urgent care may be required.

Alcohol withdrawal delirium (AWD) is the most serious form of alcohol withdrawal. It causes sudden and severe problems in your brain and nervous system. Approximately five percent of hospital patients being treated fo...

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19

Unstable Angina

This condition is considered a medical emergency. Urgent care may be required.

Angina is a condition marked by crushing pain in your chest that may also be felt in your shoulders, neck, and arms. The pain is caused by inadequate blood supply to your heart, which leaves your heart deprived o...

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20

Ischemic Cardiomyopathy

Ischemic cardiomyopathy (IC) is a condition that occurs when the heart muscle is weakened. In this condition, the left ventricle, which is the main heart muscle, is usually enlarged and dilated. This condition can be ...

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This feature is for informational purposes only and should not be used to diagnose.
Please consult a healthcare professional if you have health concerns.
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