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What causes gastrointestinal bleeding and vomiting? 27 possible conditions

See a list of possible causes in order from the most common to the least.


Stomach Ulcer

Stomach ulcers are painful sores in the stomach lining or small intestine. They occur when the mucus that protects the stomach from digestive juices is reduced.

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Types of Acid Reflux

Acid reflux symptoms are caused when stomach contents flow up from the stomach back into the esophagus, causing symptoms like heartburn, stomach pain, and burping.

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Weakness in your stomach lining allows digestive juices to damage and inflame it, causing gastritis. It comes in both acute and chronic forms.

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Peptic Ulcer

Peptic ulcers are painful sores in the lining of the stomach, esophagus, or small intestine. Peptic ulcers are a fairly common health problem.

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Alcoholic Liver Disease

Damage to the liver from excessive drinking can lead to ALD. Years of alcohol abuse cause the liver to become inflamed and swollen. This damage can also cause scarring known as cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is the final stage o...

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Cirrhosis is the severe scarring and poor function of the liver caused by long-term exposure to toxins such as alcohol or viral infections.

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Stomach Cancer (Gastric Adenocarcinoma)

Stomach cancer occurs when cancerous cells form in the stomach lining. Because it's difficult to detect, it's often not diagnosed until it's more advanced.

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Bleeding Esophageal Varices

This condition is considered a medical emergency. Urgent care may be required.

Bleeding esophageal varices occur when swollen veins in your lower esophagus rupture and bleed due to excess pressure. This condition is a medical emergency and must be dealt with promptly.

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Esophageal Cancer

Esophageal cancer occurs when a malignant (cancerous) tumor forms in the lining of the esophagus, which is the muscular tube responsible for moving food from the throat to the stomach. As the cancer grows, it can affec...

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Diverticula are bulging sacs that can appear in the lining of your large intestine. Diverticulitis occurs when these sacs get acutely infected or inflamed.

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This condition is considered a medical emergency. Urgent care may be required.

Most common in boys, intussusception occurs when a portion of the intestines become enfolded, causing a blockage. Symptoms include abdominal pain, vomiting, bloody stools, and others. It is potentially life-threatening.

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Colorectal (Colon) Cancer

Colorectal cancer is a cancer that originates in the rectum or colon. Both of these organs are located at the lower portion of your digestive system. The colon is at the end of the large intestine and the rectum is a...

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The number one symptom of shigellosis, a bacterial infection, is diarrhea. Its symptoms vary in intensity, so you can have this infection and not know it.

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The Many Sides of Bacterial Gastroenteritis

Bacterial infections are common causes of gastrointestinal infections. This type of infection is also called "food poisoning" and is often caused by poor hygiene or ingesting foods contaminated with bacteria.

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Amebiasis is a parasitic infection, common in the tropics and caused by contaminated water. Symptoms can be severe and usually start 1-4 weeks after exposure.

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Ischemic Colitis

Ischemic colitis (IC) is inflammation of the large intestine (colon). IC occurs when not enough blood flows to the colon. Abdominal pain is a common symptom.

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Necrotizing Enterocolitis

This condition is considered a medical emergency. Urgent care may be required.

Necrotizing enterocolitis is inflammation and death of intestinal tissue. It may involve just the lining or the entire thickness of the intestine. This very dangerous disease is most common in premature infants.

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Ebola Virus and Disease

This condition is considered a medical emergency. Urgent care may be required.

Ebola disease is a rare, often fatal illness. One of its late-stage symptoms is a bleeding rash over the entire body.

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This condition is considered a medical emergency. Urgent care may be required.

Anthrax is a serious illness caused by a microbe that lives in soil, called Bacillus anthracis. Inhalation may result in cold and flu symptoms; signs of ingestion include nausea and abdominal pain.

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Preeclampsia is a condition in which a pregnant women has high blood pressure and protein in her urine after the 20th week of pregnancy. Abnormal swelling of the face and hands can be a sign of preeclampsia.

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This feature is for informational purposes only and should not be used to diagnose.
Please consult a healthcare professional if you have health concerns.