What causes developmental delay? 16 possible conditions
Children reach developmental milestones at their own pace. Minor, temporary delays are usually no cause for alarm. An ongoing delay or multiple delays in reaching milestones is called developmental delay. Developmental milestones include language, thinking, and motor skills.
Developmental delay may be caused by a variety of factors, including heredity, problems with pregnancy, and premature birth. The cause is not always known.
If you suspect your child has developmental delay, speak with your pediatrician. Developmental delay sometimes indicates an underlying condition. Only a doctor can diagnosis developmental delay. Early intervention may help your child's progress.
Although doctors can't always pinpoint the cause, a variety of things can contribute to developmental delay. Some conditions, like Down syndrome, for example, are genetic in origin. Infection or other problems during pregnancy and childbirth, as well as premature birth, can cause developmental delay.
Chronic ear infections in infancy and toddlerhood can cause hearing loss, leading to speech and language delay. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), developmental delay is also a symptom of lead poisoning in young children (EPA).
Developmental delay can also be a symptom of other underlying medical conditions, including:
- autism spectrum disorders
- cerebral palsy
- fetal alcohol spectrum disorders
- Landau-Kleffner syndrome
- myopathies, including muscular dystrophies
According to the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), the most active time for learning speech and language is the first three years of life, as the brain develops and matures (NIDCD, 2010).
The language learning process begins when an infant communicates hunger by crying. By the time they reach six months old, most can recognize the sounds of basic language. At 12-15 months, he or she should be able to say a few simple words, even if they are not clear. Most toddlers can understand a few words by the time they are 18 months old. When they reach three, most children can speak in brief sentences.
Speech Delay or Language Delay?
Speech and language delay are not the same. Speaking requires the muscle coordination of the vocal tract, tongue, lips, and jaw to make sounds. Speech delay is when your child stutters or has difficulty producing sounds the correct way. A disorder that makes it hard to put syllables together to form words is called apraxia of speech.
Language disorder is when a child has a difficult time understanding what other people say, or cannot express his or her own thoughts. Language includes speaking, gesturing, signing, and writing.
Poor hearing can cause speech and language delay, so diagnosis usually includes a hearing test. Children with speech and language delay are often referred to a speech-language pathologist. Early intervention can be a big help.
Fine motor skills include small movements like holding a toy or using a crayon. Gross motor skills require larger movements, like jumping, climbing stairs, or throwing a ball.
Children progress at different rates, but most children can lift their head by three months, sit up by six months, and walk well before their second birthday. By age five, most children can throw a ball overhand and ride a tricycle.
Falling outside the normal range is not always cause for concern, but if your child is unable to perform tasks within the expected time frame, speak to your doctor. Motor skill delay may be caused by an underlying medical condition.
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) include a group of developmental disabilities in which the brain handles information in different ways. Classic autism usually includes language delay and intellectual disabilities.
Symptoms are sometimes obvious early on, but may not be noticed until a child reaches two or three years of age. Signs and symptoms of autism vary, but usually include delayed speech and language skills. Children with autism may have difficulty communicating and interacting with others.
There is currently no cure for autism, but early intervention and education can help your child progress.
Remember that children develop at different rates. However, if you think your child is developmentally delayed, talk to your doctor. If your school-age child is diagnosed with developmental delay, you may be eligible for special services.
Specialized services vary according to need and local municipality. Check with your physician and your school district to find out what services are available. Specialized education, especially when started early, can help your child progress and achieve more in school.
- Autism: Definition. (2012, October 6). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved May 21, 2013 from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/autism/DS00348
- Autism: Risk Factors. (2012, October 6). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved May 21, 2013 from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/autism/DS00348/DSECTION=risk-factors
- Autism Spectrum Disorders, Facts about ASD. (2012, March 29). U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved May 21, 2013 from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/facts.html
- Boyse, K. Developmental Delay. (2010, February). University of Michigan Health System. Retrieved May 21, 2013 from http://www.med.umich.edu/yourchild/topics/devdel.htm
- Cerebal palsy: Symptoms. (2010, November 13). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved May 22, 2013 from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/cerebral-palsy/DS00302/DSECTION=symptoms
- Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Fact Sheet. (2012, March 29). U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved May 21, 2013 from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/actearly/pdf/parents_pdfs/FASD_english_spanish.pdf
- Fine and Gross Motor. (n.d.). First 5 California. Retrieved May 21, 2013 from http://www.ccfc.ca.gov/parents/learning-center/fine-gross-motor-skills/ - /?a=motorskilslmilestones
- Human Health and Lead. (n.d.). Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Retrieved May 22, 2013 from http://epa.gov/superfund/lead/health.htm
- NINDS Landau-Kleffner Syndrome Information Page. (2008, October 17). National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Retrieved May 22, 2013 from http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/landaukleffnersyndrome/landaukleffnersyndrome.htm
- NINDS Myopathy Information Page. (2013, February 14). National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Retrieved May 22, 2013 from http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/myopathy/myopathy.htm
- Speech and Language Developmental Milestones. (2010, September). National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD). Retrieved May 21, 2013 from http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/voice/pages/speechandlanguage.aspx
See a list of possible causes in order from the most common to the least.
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