Oats are among the healthiest grains on earth.
They're a gluten-free whole grain and a great source of important vitamins, minerals, fiber and antioxidants.
Studies show that oats and oatmeal have many health benefits.
These include weight loss, lower blood sugar levels and a reduced risk of heart disease.
Here are 9 evidence-based health benefits of eating oats and oatmeal.
Oats are a whole-grain food, known scientifically as Avena sativa.
Oat groats, the most intact and whole form of oats, take a long time to cook. For this reason, most people prefer rolled, crushed or steel-cut oats.
Instant (quick) oats are the most highly processed variety. While they take the shortest time to cook, the texture may be mushy.
Oats are commonly eaten for breakfast as oatmeal, which is made by boiling oats in water or milk. Oatmeal is often referred to as porridge.
They're also often included in muffins, granola bars, cookies and other baked goods.
Bottom Line: Oats are a whole grain that is commonly eaten for breakfast as oatmeal (porridge).
The nutrient composition of oats is well-balanced.
They also contain more protein and fat than most grains (4).
Oats are loaded with important vitamins, minerals and antioxidant plant compounds. Half a cup (78 grams) of dry oats contains (5):
- Manganese: 191% of the RDI.
- Phosphorus: 41% of the RDI.
- Magnesium: 34% of the RDI.
- Copper: 24% of the RDI.
- Iron: 20% of the RDI.
- Zinc: 20% of the RDI.
- Folate: 11% of the RDI.
- Vitamin B1 (thiamin): 39% of the RDI.
- Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid): 10% of the RDI.
- Smaller amounts of calcium, potassium, vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) and vitamin B3 (niacin).
This is coming with 51 grams of carbs, 13 grams of protein, 5 grams of fat and 8 grams of fiber, but only 303 calories.
This means that oats are among the most nutrient-dense foods you can eat.
Bottom Line: Oats are rich in carbs and fiber, but also higher in protein and fat than most other grains. They are very high in many vitamins and minerals.
Whole oats are high in antioxidants and beneficial plant compounds called polyphenols. Most notable is a unique group of antioxidants called avenanthramides, which are almost solely found in oats (6).
In addition, avenanthramides have anti-inflammatory and anti-itching effects (9).
Ferulic acid is also found in large amounts in oats. This is another antioxidant (10).
Bottom Line: Oats contain many powerful antioxidants, including avenanthramides. These compounds may help reduce blood pressure and provide other benefits.
Oats contain large amounts of beta-glucan, a type of soluble fiber.
Beta-glucan partially dissolves in water and forms a thick, gel-like solution in the gut.
The health benefits of beta-glucan fiber include:
- Reduced LDL and total cholesterol levels (1).
- Reduced blood sugar and insulin response (11).
- Increased feeling of fullness (12).
- Increased growth of good bacteria in the digestive tract (13).
Bottom Line: Oats are high in the soluble fiber beta-glucan, which has numerous benefits. It helps reduce cholesterol and blood sugar levels, promotes healthy gut bacteria and increases feelings of fullness.
Heart disease is the leading cause of death globally. One major risk factor is high blood cholesterol.
Beta-glucan may increase the excretion of cholesterol-rich bile, thereby reducing circulating levels of cholesterol in the blood.
Oxidation of LDL (the "bad") cholesterol, which occurs when LDL reacts with free radicals, is another crucial step in the progression of heart disease.
It produces inflammation in arteries, damages tissues and can raise the risk of heart attacks and strokes.
One study reports that antioxidants in oats work together with vitamin C to prevent LDL oxidation (15).
Bottom Line: Oats may lower the risk of heart disease by reducing both total and LDL cholesterol and protecting LDL cholesterol from oxidation.
Type 2 diabetes is a common disease, characterized by significantly elevated blood sugars. It usually results from decreased sensitivity to the hormone insulin.
These effects are mainly attributed to beta-glucan's ability to form a thick gel that delays emptying of the stomach and absorption of glucose into the blood (20).
Bottom Line: Due to the soluble fiber beta-glucan, oats may improve insulin sensitivity and help lower blood sugar levels.
Eating filling foods may help you eat fewer calories and lose weight.
Beta-glucan may also promote the release of peptide YY (PYY), a hormone produced in the gut in response to eating. This satiety hormone has been shown to lead to reduced calorie intake and may decrease your risk of obesity (23, 24).
Bottom Line: Oatmeal may help you lose weight by making you feel more full. It does this by slowing down the emptying of the stomach and increasing production of the satiety hormone PYY.
It's no coincidence that oats can be found in numerous skin care products. Makers of these products often list finely ground oats as "colloidal oatmeal."
The FDA approved colloidal oatmeal as a skin-protective substance back in 2003. But in fact, oats have a long history of use in treatment of itch and irritation in various skin conditions (25, 26, 27).
For example, oat-based skin products may improve uncomfortable symptoms of eczema (28).
Note that skin care benefits pertain only to oats applied to the skin, not those that are eaten.
Bottom Line: Colloidal oatmeal (finely ground oats) has long been used to help treat dry and itchy skin. It may help relieve symptoms of various skin conditions, including eczema.
Asthma is the most common chronic disease in kids (29).
It's an inflammatory disorder of the airways — the tubes that carry air to and from a person's lungs.
Although not all children have the same symptoms, many experience recurrent coughing, wheezing and shortness of breath.
Many researchers believe early introduction of solid foods may increase a child's risk of developing asthma and other allergic diseases (30).
One study reports that feeding oats to infants before the age of 6 months is linked to a decreased risk of childhood asthma (33)
Bottom Line: Some research suggests that oats may help prevent asthma in children when fed to young infants.
Elderly people often experience constipation, with infrequent, irregular bowel movements that are difficult to pass.
One trial found that well-being improved for 30 elderly patients who consumed a soup or dessert containing oat bran daily for 12 weeks (37).
What's more, 59% of those patients were able to stop using laxatives after the 3-month study, while overall laxative use increased by 8% in the control group.
Bottom Line: Studies indicate that oat bran can help reduce constipation in elderly individuals, significantly reducing the need to use laxatives.
You can enjoy oats in several ways.
The most popular way is to simply eat oatmeal (porridge) for breakfast.
Here is a very simple way to make oatmeal:
Combine ingredients in a pot and bring to a boil. Reduce heat to a simmer and cook the oats, stirring occasionally, until soft.
Also, oats are often included in baked goods, muesli, granola and bread.
Although oats are naturally gluten-free, they are sometimes contaminated with gluten. That's because they may be harvested and processed using the same equipment as other grains that contain gluten (38).
If you have celiac disease or gluten sensitivity, choose oat products that are certified as gluten-free.
Bottom Line: Oats can be a great addition to a healthy diet. They can be eaten as oatmeal (porridge) for breakfast, added to baked goods and more.
Oats are an incredibly nutritious food packed with important vitamins, minerals and antioxidants.
In addition, they're high in fiber and protein compared to other grains.
Oats contain some unique components — in particular, the soluble fiber beta-glucan and antioxidants called avenanthramides.
Benefits include lower blood sugar and cholesterol levels, protection against skin irritation and reduced constipation.
In addition, they are very filling and have many properties that should make them a weight loss friendly food.
At the end of the day, oats are among the healthiest foods you can eat.