Drugs A - Z
Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis)
Generic Name: Simmondsia chinensis
CategoryHerbs & Supplements
D-pinitol, jojoba beans, jojoba bean oil, jojoba cotyledons, jojoba esters, jojoba liquid wax (JLW), JLW, jojoba meal, jojoba meal phospholipids, jojoba oil (Joj), jojoba protein, jojoba seed, jojoba seedlings, jojoba seed meal, jojoba seed xyloglucan, jojoba wax, jojoba xyloglucan oligosaccharides, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), myo-inositol sucrose, phosphatidylcholine (PC), pinitol alpha-D-galactosides, rimethylsilyl derivatives, Simmondsia chinensis, Simmondsiaceae (family), simmondsin, simmondsin ferulates, simmondsins, simmondsin derivative.
Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is a shrub native to deserts in Arizona, California and Mexico and is also found in some arid African countries. The oil (or liquid wax) in jojoba seeds contains extremely long (C36-C46) straight chain fatty acids in the form of wax esters, as opposed to triglycerides. It is this structure that allows it to be easily refined for use in cosmetics and as a carrier oil for fragrances. Jojoba meal, remaining after oil extraction, is rich in protein. In Japan, jojoba oil (wax) is used as a food additive.
Jojoba oil is used most commonly as a carrier oil for topical application or aromatherapy. At this time, there are no high-quality human trials available supporting the efficacy of jojoba oil for any indication. Potential effects of jojoba oil include anti-inflammatory, cholesterol-reduction and mosquito-repellant effects.
EvidenceDISCLAIMER: These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.
Jojoba oil is traditionally used as a carrier or massage oil. There is currently not enough available evidence to recommend for or against the use of jojoba oil for dementia.
There is currently not enough available evidence to recommend for or against the use of jojoba oil as a mosquito repellent.
TraditionWARNING: DISCLAIMER: The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.
Anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, appetite suppressant, cosmetic uses, food uses (additive), insecticidal, reflexology treatment, skin disorders (dry skin), topical (applied to the skin) drug delivery, weight loss, wound-healing.
Adults (18 years and older):
There is no proven safe or effective dose for jojoba in adults. Avoid taking jojoba products by mouth.
Children (younger than 18 years):
There is no proven safe or effective dose for jojoba in children. Avoid taking jojoba products by mouth.
SafetyDISCLAIMER: Many complementary techniques are practiced by healthcare professionals with formal training, in accordance with the standards of national organizations. However, this is not universally the case, and adverse effects are possible. Due to limited research, in some cases only limited safety information is available.
Side Effects and Warnings
Side effects of jojoba are mainly limited to contact dermatitis and gastrointestinal concerns in animals fed large amounts of jojoba meal. Avoid oral consumption of jojoba products.
Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
Jojoba is not recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to a lack of available scientific evidence. Although not well studied in humans, ingesting jojoba meal may lower fetal and placental weights.
Interactions with Drugs
Jojoba liquid wax may have anti-inflammatory effects. Thus, caution is advised when taking jojoba with other anti-inflammatory agents.
Consumption of jojoba meal in combination with appetite suppressants may have additive effects.
Although not well studied in humans, jojoba oil may alter blood cholesterol levels. Caution is advised when combining with other cholesterol-lowering agents.
A South African commercial oil containing coconut, jojoba and rapeseed oils has shown ability to act as a mosquito repellant for humans. Thus, use of jojoba oil in combination with other mosquito repellants may have additive effects.
Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements
Jojoba liquid wax may have anti-inflammatory effects. Thus, cautioun is advised when taking jojoba with other anti-inflammatory herbs or supplements.
Although not well studied in humans, jojoba oil may alter blood cholesterol levels. Caution is advised when combining with other cholesterol-lowering herbs or supplements, such as red yeast rice.
Consumption of jojoba meal in combination with appetite suppressant herbs or supplements may have additive effects.
Jojoba oil is commonly used as a carrier oil in aromatherapy. Combinations with other carrier oils, such as almond and apricot, with the essential oils from lavender, marjoram, eucalyptus, rosemary and peppermint, may offer clinical benefits.
A South African commercial oil containing coconut, jojoba and rapeseed oils has shown ability to act as a mosquito repellant. Thus, use of jojoba oil in combination with other mosquito repellant herbs may have additive effects.
This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature, and was peer-reviewed and edited by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com): Tracee Rae Abrams, PharmD (University of Rhode Island), J. Kathryn Bryan, BA (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Julie Conquer, PhD (RGB Consulting); Dawn Costa, BA, BS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Shaina Tanguay-Colucci, BS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Catherine Ulbricht, PharmD (Massachusetts General Hospital); Wendy Weissner, BA (Natural Standard Research Collaboration.
BibliographyDISCLAIMER: Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.
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Bahgat M, Shalaby NM, Ruppel A, et al. Humoral and cellular immune responses induced in mice by purified iridoid mixture that inhibits penetration of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae upon topical treatment of mice tails. J Egypt.Soc Parasitol. 2005;35(2):597-613.
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Di Berardino L, Di Berardino F, Castelli A, et al. A case of contact dermatitis from jojoba. Contact Dermatitis 2006;55(1):57-58.
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Habashy RR, Abdel-Naim AB, Khalifa AE, et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of jojoba liquid wax in experimental models. Pharmacol Res 2005;51(2):95-105.
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Kalscheuer R, Stoveken T, Luftmann H, et al. Neutral lipid biosynthesis in engineered Escherichia coli: jojoba oil-like wax esters and fatty acid butyl esters. Appl Environ.Microbiol. 2006;72(2):1373-1379.
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Leon F, Van Boven M, de Witte P, et al. Isolation and identification of molecular species of phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine from jojoba seed meal (Simmondsia chinensis). J Agric.Food Chem 3-10-2004;52(5):1207-1211.
Lievens S, Flo G, Decuypere E, et al. Simmondsin: effects on meal patterns and choice behavior in rats. Physiol Behav. 2003;78(4-5):669-677.
Tada A, Jin ZL, Sugimoto N, et al. Analysis of the constituents in jojoba wax used as a food additive by LC/MS/MS. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi 2005;46(5):198-204.
Van Boven M, Laga M, Leonard S, et al. Mechanism of simmondsin decomposition during sodium hydroxide treatment. J Agric.Food Chem 2-26-2003;51(5):1260-1264.
Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.