Drugs A - Z

Guggul (Commifora mukul)

treats Obesity, Rheumatoid arthritis, Osteoarthritis, Acne, and Hypercholesterolemia

Generic Name: Guggul

Category

Herbs & Supplements

Synonyms

African myrrh, Arabian myrrh, Commifora mukul, Commiphora myrrha, guggal, guggulu, guggulsterone (4,17(20)-pregnadiene-3,16-dione), gum guggul, gum guggulu, guggulsterone, gugulimax, guggulipid C+, guglip, gum myrrh, fraction A, myrrha, Somali myrrh, yemen myrhh.

Background

Guggul (gum guggul) is a resin produced by the mukul mirth tree. Guggulipid is extracted from guggul, and contains plant sterols (guggulsterones E and Z), which are believed to be its bioactive compounds.

Prior to 2003, the majority of scientific evidence suggested that guggulipid elicits significant reductions in serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglycerides, as well as elevations in high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Although recent evidence provides preliminary evidence against the efficacy of guggul for hypercholesterolemia, and thus, further study is necessary before a definitive conclusion can be reached.

Initial research reports that guggulsterones are antagonists of the farsenoid X receptor (FXR) and the bile acid receptor (BAR), nuclear hormones that are involved with cholesterol metabolism and bile acid regulation.

Evidence

DISCLAIMER: These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.

Hypercholesterolemia: Prior to 2003, the majority of scientific evidence suggested that guggulipid elicits significant reductions in serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglycerides, as well as elevations in high-density lipoprotein (HDL). However, recent evidence provides preliminary evidence against the efficacy of guggul for hypercholesterolemia. Due to the precedent of prior research and historical use, further study is necessary before a definitive conclusion can be reached.
Grade: C

Acne: Guggulipid has been found to possess anti-inflammatory properties, and has been suggested as an oral therapy for nodulocystic acne vulgaris. Preliminary data suggest possible short-term improvements in the number of acne lesions. However, further evidence is warranted before a therapeutic recommendation can be made.
Grade: C

Obesity: There is insufficient evidence to support the use of guggul or guggul derivatives for the management of obesity.
Grade: C

Rheumatoid arthritis: There is insufficient evidence to support the use of guggul or guggul derivatives for the management of rheumatoid arthritis.
Grade: C

Osteoarthritis: There is insufficient evidence to support the use of guggul or guggul derivatives for the management of osteoarthritis.
Grade: C

Tradition

WARNING: DISCLAIMER: The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.
Asthma, bleeding, colitis, diabetes, gingivitis, hemorrhoids, leprosy, leucorrhoea, menstrual disorders, mouth infections, neuralgia, obesity, pain, psoriasis, rhinitis, sores, sore throat, tumors, weight loss, wound healing.

Dosing

Adults (18 years and older):

There is no proven effective dose for guggul in adults. For hyperlipidemia, 500-1,000 milligrams of guggulipid (standardized to 2.5% guggulsterones) taken 2-3 times daily has been used. An equivalent dose of commercially prepared guggulsterone is 25 milligrams three times daily or 50 milligrams twice daily by mouth. A higher dose has been studied (2,000 milligrams three times daily, standardized to 2.5% guggulsterones), although this dose may be associated with a greater risk of hypersensitivity skin reactions. For nodulocystic acne, dose of guggulipid equivalent to 25 milligrams guggulsterone per day has been used.

Children (younger than 18 years):

There is no proven effective dose for guggul in children.

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