Drugs A - Z
Generic Name: clay
CategoryHerbs & Supplements
Akipula, aluminium silicate, anhydrous aluminum silicates, askipula, beidellitic montmorillonite, benditos, bioelectrical minerals, chalk, cipula, clay dirt, clay dust, clay lozenges, clay suspension products, clay tablets, colloidal minerals, colloidal trace minerals, fossil farina, humic shale, Indian healing clay, kaolin, kipula, mountain meal, NovaSil, panito del senor (Spanish), plant-derived liquid minerals, Terra sigillata, tirra santa, white clay, white mud.
EvidenceDISCLAIMER: These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.
Fecal incontinence associated with psychiatric disorders (encopresis): clay modeling therapy in children:
There is not enough scientific research to support a recommendation for play with modeling clay as an effective therapeutic intervention in children with constipation and encopresis (involuntary bowel movement).
Functional gastrointestinal disorders:
There is not enough scientific evidence to recommend the medicinal use of clay by mouth in patients with gastrointestinal disorders. Some clay preparations have been found to be similar to Kaolin® and Kaopectate®, which are used to treat gastrointestinal disturbances including diarrhea. However, overall, there are significant potential risks that accompany the use of clay, including intestinal blockage and injury as well as lead poisoning.
Mercuric chloride poisoning:
Clay lozenges have been used historically in the treatment of mercuric chloride poisoning and were officially mentioned in several European pharmacopoeias, including the Royal College, until the middle 19th Century. However, there is not enough scientific evidence to recommend the use of clay by mouth for poisoning at this time, as there is a risk that the clay itself may contain contaminants.
Protection from aflatoxins:
Aflatoxins are toxic substances from the fungus Aspergillis flavus. This fungus infects peanuts, and ingestion of aflatoxins from peanuts and cereals (primarily in warm and humid regions) has been associated with liver cancers in humans and multiple cancers in animals. Phyllosilicate clay has been shown to adhere to aflatoxins in laboratory study, and HSACS clay in animal diets may diminish or block exposure to aflatoxins. However, the risks of chronic clay exposure likely do not justify the potential benefit.
TraditionWARNING: DISCLAIMER: The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.
Acidosis (too much acid in the blood), animal bites, blood purification, cancer, constipation, detoxification, diarrhea, dysentery, eye disorders, fevers, heart disorders, menstruation difficulties, nausea and vomiting during pregnancy, nutrition, plague, poisoning, skin fairness, smoking, syphilis, vomiting, water purification, weight loss.
Adults (18 years and older)
There is not enough scientific evidence to recommend the safe use of clay.
Children (younger than 18 years)
There is not enough scientific evidence to recommend the safe use of clay in children.
SafetyDISCLAIMER: Many complementary techniques are practiced by healthcare professionals with formal training, in accordance with the standards of national organizations. However, this is not universally the case, and adverse effects are possible. Due to limited research, in some cases only limited safety information is available.
There is a lack of clay allergy reports in the available scientific literature. However, in theory, allergy/hypersensitivity to clay, clay products, or constituents of clay may occur.
Side Effects and Warnings
The practice of eating dirt, clay, or other non-nutritious substances is called "pica" or "geophagia," and may occur in early childhood or in mentally handicapped people. Clay or dirt eating has been associated with lead poisoning in infants, children, and pregnant women, with potential risks such as low red blood cell count and brain damage. Death has occurred related to complications of lead poisoning and brain damage after drinking from a glazed clay pitcher. Clay pots containing candy have been recalled in the United States by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) due to high levels of lead in the candy, absorbed from the clay pots. Pica may carry a risk of central nervous system damage. The risk of neurolathyrism, a neurodegenerative, irreversible disorder that causes spastic paraparesis of the body leading to paralysis, was reported to quadruple in a case-control study in Ethiopia when cooking grass pea with clay utensils.
Clay products may contain varying amounts of contaminants including aluminum, arsenic, barium, nickel, and titanium. Elevated levels of 2,3,7,8-tetracholorodibenzo-p-dioxin have been found in fish and eggs from chickens fed a diet including clay. Chronic clay eating has also been associated with imbalances of blood chemistry, such as increased calcium or magnesium and decreased iron and potassium. Myopathy due to severe hypokalemia (low blood potassium levels) has been reported in one case report with large quantities of clay ingestion.
In the 19th Century, a condition was described called "Cachexia Africana," including a swollen appearance, enlarged heart, increased urination, and death. Descriptions of people who chronically ate clay in the 19th Century noted skin that was initially dry and shiny, and in late stages of disease, especially in children, skin ulcerations occurred over the arms and legs. Chronic clay eating has also been associated with small gonads (testes) and muscle injury.
Heartburn, gas, loss of appetite, constipation, diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence, and vomiting after meals have been reported with use of clay. Clay eating has also been associated with intestinal blockage and injury, bowel rupture (perforation), formation of stones in the intestine, and enlarged liver/spleen.
It is reported that children with pica are more likely to develop lung infections. Chronic bronchitis, trouble breathing, and infections have been associated with dust exposure in the heavy clay industry. Hookworm infections may result from eating clay. Tetanus contracted from clay has been described in an infant who ate clay, and in a newborn whose umbilical cord was wrapped in clay.
Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
Interactions with Drugs
When taken together, clay may inhibit the absorption of drugs such as cimetidine (Tagamet®).
Kaolin has been shown to reduce the bioavailability of quinine in laboratory study.
Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements
Clay can interfere with iron absorption.
This monograph was written and peer-reviewed by members of the Senior Editorial Board of the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com): Ethan Basch, MD (Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center); Lisa Cheung, PharmD (Northeastern University); Dawn Costa, BA, BS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Jaspal S. Gujral, MBBS (Medical College of Georgia); Michelle Miranda, PharmD (Northeastern University); Shaina Tanguay-Colucci, BS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Catherine Ulbricht, PharmD (Massachusetts General Hospital); Mamta Vora, PharmD (Northeastern University); Wendy Weissner, BA (Natural Standard Research Collaboration).
BibliographyDISCLAIMER: Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.
Feldman PC, Villanueva S, Lanne V, et al. Use of play with clay to treat children with intractable encopresis. J Pediatr 1993;122(3):483-488.
Fredj G, Farinotti R, Salvadori C, et al. [Topical digestive drugs with a clay base. Influence on the absorption of cimetidine]. Therapie 1986;41(1):23-25.
Gonzalez JJ, Owens W, Ungaro PC, et al. Clay ingestion: a rare cause of hypokalemia. Ann Intern Med 1982;97(1):65-66.
Love RG, Waclawski ER, Maclaren WM, et al. Risks of respiratory disease in the heavy clay industry. Occup.Environ.Med 1999;56(2):124-133.
Montoya-Cabrera MA, Hernandex-Zamora A, Portilla-Aguilar J, et al. [Fatal lead poisoning caused by the ingestion of lemonade from glazed clay chinaware]. Gac Med Mex 1981;117(4):154-158.
Obialo CI, Crowell AK, Wen XJ, et al. Clay pica has no hematologic or metabolic correlate in chronic hemodialysis patients. J Ren Nutr 2001;11(1):32-36.
Pariente EA, De La Garoullaye G. [A multicenter comparative study of a mucilage (Karaya gum + PVPP) versus clay in functional intestinal disorders]. Med Chir Dig 1994;23(3):193-199.
Phillips TD, Sarr AB, Grant PG. Selective chemisorption and detoxification of aflatoxins by phyllosilicate clay. Nat Toxins 1995;3(4):204-213.
Phillips TD. Dietary clay in the chemoprevention of aflatoxin-induced disease. Toxicol Sci 1999;52(2 Suppl):118-126.
Severance HW Jr, Holt T, Patrone NA, et al. Profound muscle weakness and hypokalemia due to clay ingestion. South Med J 1988;81(2):272-274.
Wang JS, Luo H, Billam M, et al. Short-term safety evaluation of processed calcium montmorillonite clay (NovaSil) in humans. Food Addit Contam 2005 Mar;22(3):270-9.
Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.