Drugs A - Z
Bael fruit (Aegle marmelos)
Generic Name: Aegle marmelos
CategoryHerbs & Supplements
Aegelenine, aegeline, Aegle marmelos, allocryptopine, alloimperatorin methyl ether, aurapten, β-sitosterol, bael, bael tree, bel, beli, Bengal quince, betulinic acid, bilva, bilwa, butyl p-tolyl sulfide, butylated hydroxyanisole, dimethoxy coumarin, essential oil, ethyl phosphonic acid diethyl ester, hexachloro ethane, Indian bael, lupeol, luvangetin, marmelide, marmelosin, marmenol, marmesin, methyl linoleate, montanine, palmitic acid, praealtin D, psoralen, rues, Rutaceae (family), rutacées, rutaretin, rutin, scopoletin, Shivadume, shivaphala, skimmianine, sripal, tannic acid, tannins (condensed), trans-cinnamic acid, umbelliferone, valencic acid, vilvam, wood apple, xanthotoxin, xanthotoxol.
Indian bael, a native plant of India, has spread over wide areas of southeast Asia. The ripe fruit and unripe fruit, as well as the roots, leaves and branches have all been used in traditional medicine. In Ayurveda, the ripe fruit has been used for chronic diarrhea and dysentery, as a tonic for the heart and brain, and as adjuvant treatment of dysentery. A decoction of the roots has been used to treat melancholia, intermittent fevers, and palpitations; the roots have mainly been used as an ingredient of the Ayurvedic medicine, dashmool. The leaves have been given as a febrifuge, and as a poultice for the treatment of eye disorders and ulcers; and administration of fresh leaves has been used for weakness of the heart, dropsy, and beriberi.
A survey showed that in 2001-2002 in a Himalayan region (State of Uttaranchal, Indian Republic), vaidyas (practitioners of Ayurveda) used Indian bael as an ingredient in respective herbal formulations for boils, dysentery, earaches, discharge from the ears, and fever/cold.
There are very few available human studies evaluating bael fruit for any condition, although Indian bael has been studied in animals and laboratory studies.
EvidenceDISCLAIMER: These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.
Indian bael has traditionally been used as a treatment for diarrhea. However, capsules of dried powder of the unripe fruit were not effective in treating diarrhea in patients with shigellosis. Additional study investigating different preparations of bael fruit would help confirm this finding.
TraditionWARNING: DISCLAIMER: The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.
Abortifacient (induces abortion), angina pectoris (chest pain), antifertility agent in women, antifungal, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, appetites stimulant, asthma, astringent, beriberi, boils, cardiac conditions (pericarditis), cardiotonic, catarrh (inflammation of mucous membrane), cholera, colds, constipation, convulsions, deafness, demulcent (soothes inflamed tissue), depressive disorder (major), diabetes, digestive, digestive complaints, dropsy (edema), ear discharge, earache, expectorant, eye diseases, eye disorders, fever, heart disorders, hemorrhage, hyperlipidemia (high cholesterol), inflammation, laxative, malaria, mental illnesses, nausea, ophthalmia (inflammation of eye), oral hygiene, pain, palpitations, radioprotection, rectal complaints (procititis and pruritus), restorative, scurvy, sexual dysfunction (seminal weakness), snake venom antidote, sores, stomachache, stomachic, swelling, thirst, thyroid disorders, tonic, tumors, ulcers, upper respiratory tract infections, vomiting.
Adults (18 years and older):
There is no proven safe or effective dose for bael fruit. Traditionally, individuals have taken 2-12 grams of the fruit powder, 28-56 milliliters of a bael decoction, or 12-20 milliliters of an infusion by mouth.
Children (younger than 18 years):
There is no proven safe or effective dose for bael fruit for children, and use is not recommended.
SafetyDISCLAIMER: Many complementary techniques are practiced by healthcare professionals with formal training, in accordance with the standards of national organizations. However, this is not universally the case, and adverse effects are possible. Due to limited research, in some cases only limited safety information is available.
Avoid in individuals with a known allergy or hypersensitivity to Indian bael.
Side Effects and Warnings
In general, there is a lack of available safety reports on Indian bael. Based on traditional use, Indian bael may be safe when used in the traditional manner and the fresh, ripe fruit is taken by mouth, or when preparations of the pulp are taken in a drink (e.g., nectar, squash) or jam. Avoid dosages that exceed those used in traditional medicine.
Although not well studied in humans, large quantities of Indian bael may result in digestive complaints and constipation. It may also lower blood sugar. Patients taking thyroid hormones, herbs for thyroid disorders, or herbs that may exacerbate or induce hyperthyroidism, should use caution.
Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
Indian bael is not recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to a lack of available scientific evidence. Indian bael leaves have been traditionally used to induce abortion and to sterilize women.
Interactions with Drugs
Indian bael, as extracts of the leaves or seeds, may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using medications that may also lower blood sugar. Patients taking drugs for diabetes by mouth or insulin should be monitored closely by a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist. Medication adjustments may be necessary.
Although not well studied in humans, Indian bael may interact with thyroid hormones or anti-thyroid drugs. Caution is advised.
Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements
Indian bael, as extracts of the leaves or seeds, may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using herbs or supplements that may also lower blood sugar. Blood glucose levels may require monitoring, and doses may need adjustment.
Although not well studied in humans, Indian bael may interact with thyroid extracts or anti-thyroid herbs or supplements. Caution is advised.
This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature, and was peer-reviewed and edited by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com): Ashley Brigham, PharmD (Northeastern University); Phillip A. Fong, PharmD; Nicole Giese, MS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Catherine DeFranco Kirkwood, MPH, CCCJS-MAC (MD Anderson Cancer Center); Shaina Tanguay-Colucci, BS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Wendy Weissner, BA (Natural Standard Research Collaboration).
BibliographyDISCLAIMER: Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.
Anandharajan R, Jaiganesh S, Shankernarayanan NP, et al. In vitro glucose uptake activity of Aegles marmelos and Syzygium cumini by activation of Glut-4, PI3 kinase and PPARgamma in L6 myotubes. Phytomedicine 2006;13(6):434-441.
Arul V, Miyazaki S, Dhananjayan R. Mechanisms of the contractile effect of the alcoholic extract of Aegle marmelos Corr. on isolated guinea pig ileum and tracheal chain. Phytomedicine 2004;11(7-8):679-683.
Arul V, Miyazaki S, Dhananjayan R. Studies on the anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic properties of the leaves of Aegle marmelos Corr. J Ethnopharmacol 1-4-2005;96(1-2):159-163.
Costa-Lotufo LV, Khan MT, Ather A, et al. Studies of the anticancer potential of plants used in Bangladeshi folk medicine. J Ethnopharmacol 5-13-2005;99(1):21-30.
Jagetia GC, Venkatesh P, Baliga MS. Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa inhibits the proliferation of transplanted Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice. Biol Pharm Bull 2005;28(1):58-64.
Jagetia GC, Venkatesh P, Baliga MS. Evaluation of the radioprotective effect of bael leaf (Aegle marmelos) extract in mice. Int J Radiat.Biol 2004;80(4):281-290.
Kamalakkannan N, Prince PS. The effect of Aegle marmelos fruit extract in streptozotocin diabetes: a histopathological study. J Herb Pharmacother. 2005;5(3):87-96.
Kesari AN, Gupta RK, Singh SK, et al. Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of Aegle marmelos seed extract in normal and diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 10-11-2006;107(3):374-379.
Lambertini E, Lampronti I, Penolazzi L, et al. Expression of estrogen receptor alpha gene in breast cancer cells treated with transcription factor decoy is modulated by Bangladeshi natural plant extracts. Oncol.Res 2005;15(2):69-79.
Narender T, Shweta S, Tiwari P, et al. Antihyperglycemic and antidyslipidemic agent from Aegle marmelos. Bioorg.Med Chem Lett 12-15-2006;
Narendhirakannan RT, Subramanian S, Kandaswamy M. Biochemical evaluation of antidiabetogenic properties of some commonly used Indian plants on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in experimental rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2006;33(12):1150-1157.
Panda S, Kar A. Evaluation of the antithyroid, antioxidative and antihyperglycemic activity of scopoletin from Aegle marmelos leaves in hyperthyroid rats. Phytother Res 2006;20(12):1103-1105.
Rajadurai M, Prince PS. Comparative effects of Aegle marmelos extract and alpha-tocopherol on serum lipids, lipid peroxides and cardiac enzyme levels in rats with isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction. Singapore Med J 2005;46(2):78-81.
Sabu MC, Kuttan R. Antidiabetic activity of Aegle marmelos and its relationship with its antioxidant properties. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2004;48(1):81-88.
Veerappan A, Miyazaki S, Kadarkaraisamy M, et al. Acute and subacute toxicity studies of Aegle marmelos Corr., an Indian medicinal plant. Phytomedicine 2-19-2007;14(2-3):209-215.