As the name implies, a testicular artery is the blood vessel mainly responsible for supplying oxygenated blood to each of the testicles. It is therefore found only in males, although similar structures are found within the female sexual organs. It is sometimes called the male gonadal artery or, in older texts, the internal spermatic artery. Each testicular artery is a branch of the abdominal aorta. Normally, only one testicular artery per testicle is present, but multiple testicular arteries per testicle have been found in some individuals. They are long, thin vessels that pass behind the peritoneum. On reaching the scrotal area, the testicular arteries branch and begin to supply the epididymis and ureter, as well as the testes. Although the testicular artery is the major blood supply for the testicle, there is some redundancy due to the presence of the cremasteric artery and the artery to the ductus deferens. Damage to a testicular artery may cause testicular malfunction, but it is more likely that the organ will operate adequately on these collateral blood supplies.
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In Depth: Testicular artery