In the back, the rhomboid major muscle helps keep the scapula to the ribcage. Also, it rotates the scapula and retracts it towards the column of vertebrae. This is in opposition to the serratus anterior muscle, which protracts the scapula. As such, the rhomboid major features origination points in the second, third, fourth, and fifth thoracic vertebrae (T2 though T5). The muscle inserts into the medial border of the scapula, yet it is in an inferior position to the rhomboid minor's scapular insertion. The rhomboid major muscle is served oxygenated blood by the dorsal scapular artery, which arises from the subclavian artery. The dorsal scapular nerve provides innervation and a connection to the spinal column. If the rhomboid major is damaged or torn, the scapula becomes partially debilitated, and this will limit the range of motion in the upper extremities. After all, the scapula will no longer become a source of stability for arm movements. Treatment for rhomboid major injuries requires surgery and post-operation physical therapy, which includes stretching and muscular endurance activities.
Written and medically reviewed by the Healthline Editorial Team
In Depth: Rhomboid major