The epicranial muscle, also called the epicranius, consists of two sections and covers the forehead, top, and top rear of the skull. The frontalis section controls movement of the forehead and eyebrows causing forehead wrinkling. The occiputalis controls backward movement of the scalp, which raises the eyebrows. The occiputalis and frontalis sections of the epicranial muscle coordinate movement using an intermediate tendon. The frontalis section of the epicranial muscle is connected to the fascia of the facial muscles and facial skin above the nose and eyes. The occiputalis section of the epicranial is attached to the occipital bone at the base of the skull and the temporal bones, which are located on both sides of the skull. Blunt trauma or other damage to the epicranial muscle can cause facial paralysis impacting the ability to move the eyebrows and forehead. A sudden onset of facial paralysis requires medical diagnosis as facial paralysis can be caused by underlying disease processes and injuries affecting the epicranial muscle and related nerves.
Written and medically reviewed by the Healthline Editorial Team
In Depth: Epicranius