The first major branch of the abdominal aorta, the celiac trunk is responsible for supplying oxygenated blood to the stomach, spleen, liver, esophagus, and also parts of the pancreas and duodenum. Along with the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries, it is one of three anterior branches of the abdominal aorta, the largest artery in the abdominal cavity. The celiac trunk is one of the most important arteries in the abdominal area as it is essential for the proper functioning of many major organs that would otherwise be unable to receive sufficient quantities of blood from other arteries. This is because the three anterior arteries of the abdominal aorta are separate and cannot substitute for each other There are three main divisions of the celiac trunk: the left gastric artery, the common hepatic artery, and the splenic artery. The left gastric artery runs along the lesser curvature of the stomach and also connects to the lower esophagus, while the common hepatic artery supplies blood to the liver, duodenum, pancreas, and part of the stomach. The splenic artery supplies blood to the spleen.
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In Depth: Celiac trunk