David Meyer MD Pediatric Cardiothoracic Surgery Explains Tetralogy of Fallot ,a congenital heart defect .
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Male Speaker: Tetralogy of Fallot, what is that and how, you as a surgeon get involve in that, how to fix or to at least correct some of them? Dr. David Meyer: Tetralogy of Fallot is one of the commonest types of congenital heart disease and it's the classic condition which results in a so called blue baby. In other words, a baby whose oxygen level is low and therefore has, what we call medically cyanosis, but essentially blood that is not as red as a ordinarily it will be and so the patient has a relatively blue coloring, particularly in the lips or the tongue or places that are ordinarily quite red. And it's a condition in which there are several components to it, but they result in having an inadequate amount of blood going to the lungs. The reason for that is there is a large hole in the heart and that hole abuts into the pulmonary artery which is the artery that supplies blood to the lungs and generally obstruct it in some way. So that the amount of blood getting to the lungs is inadequate and some of the blood that should go to the lungs is going to the body; all of this results in patient whose blood oxygen level is somewhat less. Male Speaker: How would a perfect surgeon can correct it or just make it more live little? Dr. David Meyer: The surgical correction for this condition involves basically closing the hole in the heart, so there can't be any mixing of blood at that point and enlarging the pathway from the heart into the lungs. And that can involve either enlarging the area where the valve is, that sits between the heart and lungs, enlarging the right ventricle which pumps blood to the lungs itself or enlarging the pulmonary artery which is what sits after the valve. Generally patients require some enlargement of all the structures.