Learn about The Foundations of Science in this educational video from dizzo95.
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Male Speaker: Early humans faced a world of dark and terrible demons. Accidental discoveries cast the occasional flickering light across the darkness of ignorance but not until the beginning of science with its spirit of purposeful enquiry with illumination brought to the world of the unknown. With the slow dawning of worldly knowledge, the earliest civilizations began to gain some control over the natural forces that surrounded them. In Egypt, agriculture grew from careful observations of the annual Nile floods. Science reached its first grade epoch with the exploration of symmetry and harmony in the mathematics of ancient Greece. Pythagoras and Euclid showed how natural shapes and patterns can form to the principles of arithmetic and geometry. These relationships can now be explored through computer simulation. Greek science faded in Europe with the ascendancy of the Roman Empire but was still pursued in the Islamic world. Arab scientist nurtured what they gained from Greece and absorbed many new ideas and inventions from the dynamic eastern cultures of India and China. Scientific enquiry in the Arab world spread to the monasteries of Europe in the Middle Ages influenced by Arab treatises Nicolaus Copernicus developed the theory of the universe with the sun at the center. Once Copernicus had removed the earth and humans from the center of the universe, Europe over the next four centuries experienced a renaissance of scientific thinking that opened up many new fields of discovery. Galileo in Italy and Newton in England developed their theories of mechanical forces in gravitational motion, the basis of the physical sciences. The invention of lenses enabled Galileo to make practical observations of the planets. These new instruments laid the foundations of modern astronomy. Inspired by the magnifying power of telescopes, Renison scientists used lenses to look toward the inner world of the body and its natural processes. Using a microscope, Robert Hook discovered the cell in 1665. New microscopes using electrons instead of light beams can magnify 200 times as large as ordinary lenses. Since the discovery of the cell in the 17th Century medical science has come to understand the body and many of its mental and physical disorders. The scientific study of living things began with the early naturalists to sought to classify the natural world. In 1858, Darwin published a controversial theory of evolutionary change which proposed that plants and animals have evolved through physical adaptations to changes in their environment. Mendel's studies of evolution and heredity showed how genes could be passed intact or suddenly changed from one generation to another. But not until the discovery of the DNA molecule in 1954 was the essential structure of all living things and the nature of evolution understood. The chemistry of life is part of our understanding of the elements that make up all forms of matter. The study of elements began with the medieval alchemists so their attempt to turn base metals into gold. Later scientists classified the elements and studied how they could combine or react with one another. Reactions of all kinds are caused by the absorption and release of energy in the forms of heat, light and electricity. Albert Einstein in 1905 showed the link between energy and the physical mass of moving objects. His revolutionary mathematical formula changed the way we think about the world. The discoveries of Einstein and other 20th century scientists have expanded our understanding of both the sun's energy and the power of the atom. Mathematics accurate measurement and the scientific methods have been the foundation of reliable science since the time of ancient Greece in Babylon. Many of the complex relationships studied in science today become known to us in the products of technology that are based on scientific discoveries. Science generates the knowledge that enables us to create new tools of research. With these new inventi