Learn about Organic Chemistry 12, in this comprehensive video by bannanaiscool.
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Rob Lederer: So, when you are taking chemistry in Alberta chemistry 30, we only concentrate on carboxylic acids, alcohols, and esters for derivatives. But there are some other ones, if you live in Alberta, your teacher might want you to know some of these other ones too. So, let me tell you about it. Other hydrocarbon derivatives here are just some of the other popular ones. Two of them are very, very directly related and they are aldehydes and ketones. Now look at the aldehydes. An aldehyde is not COOH at the end, its just C double bond OH. CHO, it's got a CHO at the end. Now look, what do you call this right here? Well, you've got two carbons in the chain so that's eht, but now what do aldehydes end in? They end in al. So, this would be called ethanal. And aldehydes can only have this CHO group at the end that's it. So write at the end there Ethanal. What happens with the double bond O occurs in the middle of a chain somewhere that it's not aldehyde anymore, and it's a ketone. So, when the double bond O group is in the middle somewhere and not at the end, we call it a ketone. By the way, lots of popular aldehydes right, like Formaldehyde, which is just that would be a methanal and formaldehyde use to be a very good preservative. We can't use it anymore because it's kind of carcinogenic. So ketones, they are very popular compounds and very smelly ones too. This one would be called what? Well, ketones end in on. So, this is going to have one, two, three, four carbons alone and you don't have to say in this case where the double bond O is because its can only be at the two, if it was here it would also be at the second carbon in, if it was at the end it would be an aldehyde. So this ketone right here is going to be called Butane because it has four carbons long and that's the on its butanone. Yeah that's what it's called. So then there is another group called ethers, not esters, but ethers you know like the ethers that when they put it over your face kind of things this chemical, it'll knock you out that's what the ethers were and are. So, now and you don't use ethers anymore to knock this out, we use different types of gases that are far more harmful. Now, what do we call this right here? Well, it's ether and because it's got the O in the chain itself, so that's what you call that. Well, it's real simple, you had everything that's ether with the Os in the middle of the chain and it's called ether; then you go to one side of it, the other side of it, you say well, on the one side of it there is methyl. Do you see that CH3 and use the C2H5 group over here that's the ethyl. So, just call it methylethyl ether, so that's what that one is called. And then, of course, amine is a nitrogenous based group, which is just an ammonia group that's attached on to a hydrocarbon chain. So, here is one two carbons long that's an ethane, but what do we have here? We have an NH, it used to be NH3 ammonia, take that H off and so let bond with another H that we have taken off this chain to be able to put an amino group on. I don't like amino acids and stuff like that, right? But what would this be called? Well, this is just mino because that's what you see there, and then that's ethane, amino ethane. There are four other types of groups that you kind of need to know if you are kind of somewhere else other than where I am.