Some biological treatments options for depression include somatic intervention, light therapy, and brain stimulation.
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Question: What biological treatments are available? Dr. Ziad Nahas: On the biological and that thing, it is the most common to think of biological treatment as giving a drug. And then there is a subtype of drug that we give depending on the syndromes we have. But there is also a what we call a sematic intervention that are non drug based, which could be either the classic electric-convulsive therapy which is something that is still being carried under well controlled medical settings and is still considered to be effective in some cases that are very treatment resistant. There is light therapy sometimes that is being used, because people have found that, there can be seasonal variabilities and people may get little more depressed in winter or in arctic countries, but there is also a host of new technology that have been researched over the last 10, 15 years and continued to be more or less research and some of them have made it already into FDA market approval as a new indication for depression and some others are much earlier in the process. We're they were looking at brain stimulation as the way to specifically target brain region that we know are involved in mood regulation. We are suspecting that they are not working properly. And thus by stimulating them in particular ways, we try to restore order to these functions.