Vertebrobasilar Circulatory Disorders

Written by Darla Burke | Published on June 30, 2012
Medically Reviewed by George Krucik, MD

What Are Vertebrobasilar Circulatory Disorders?

An intricate web of blood vessels supply the brain with oxygen and vital nutrients. A group of arteries known as the vertebrobasilar arteries feeds the back (posterior) of the brain. Vertebrobasilar arteries are responsible for supplying blood, which carries oxygen to brain structures such as the brain stem, occipital lobes, and cerebellum.

These structures are needed for many of the basic functions of everyday life, including consciousness, coordination, and vision. Health problems with blood vessels can affect the function of vertebrobasilar arteries. One example is atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries). This condition narrows the arteries, making it difficult for blood to flow to vital brain structures.

Vertebrobasilar circulatory disorders are a group of diseases in which not enough blood is supplied to the back of the brain. Vertebrobasilar circulatory disorders are also known as:

  • vertebrobasilar insufficiency
  • posterior circulation ischemia
  • vertebral basilar ischemia

What Causes Vertebrobasilar Circulatory Disorders?

Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of these disorders. However, other conditions can cause these disorders, including:

  • stroke
  • tear (dissection) in the artery wall
  • injury or physical trauma
  • diseases of the connective tissue such as scleroderma or lupus
  • vasculitis

There is no underlying cause for the development of Vertebrobasilar circulatory disorders in some instances.

Who Is at Risk for Developing Vertebrobasilar Circulatory Disorders?

Patients who have underlying health conditions are at greater risk for developing vertebrobasilar circulatory disorders. Risk factors include:

What Are the Symptoms of Vertebrobasilar Circulatory Disorders?

The symptoms of vertebrobasilar circulatory disorders vary. They are based on the cause of the disease and the portion of the brain affected. Symptoms may last for a few minutes or can become permanent. This depends on how severe the blockage is and how soon blood flow is restored.

The most serious symptoms of the disorder include:

  • dizziness (vertigo)
  • changes in vision including blurring or double vision
  • sudden falls (drop attack)
  • slurred speech
  • numbness or tingling in the extremities
  • sudden uncoordinated movements
  • sleepiness

These symptoms are similar to those that occur during a stroke. Seek emergency medical care if you develop these symptoms.

Other symptoms that may occur include:

  • bladder or bowel control problems
  • difficulty swallowing
  • difficulty walking
  • headache
  • hearing loss
  • muscle weakness
  • nausea and vomiting
  • sweating on the arms, face, or legs

Call your doctor to schedule an appointment if you develop these symptoms.

How Are Vertebrobasilar Circulatory Disorders Diagnosed?

Your doctor will perform a physical exam if you have symptoms of this condition. He or she will also ask you about your medical history. Your doctor may also order tests to confirm the diagnosis. Tests used to diagnose this condition include:

  • CT of the brain (to see if a stroke has already occurred)
  • MRI of the brain (to see if a stroke has already occurred)
  • ultrasound (to examine the arteries in the brain)
  • blood tests (including those to check for clotting ability)
  • echocardiogram (to view how your heart is functioning)
  • electrocardiogram (to record electrical activity of the heart)
  • angiogram (to track blood flow and identify areas of narrowing)

In rare instances, your doctor may also order a lumbar puncture (spinal tap).

How Are Vertebrobasilar Circulatory Disorders Treated?

Your doctor may recommend several different treatments for this condition.

Lifestyle Changes

First, your doctor will recommend lifestyle changes including:

  • quitting smoking
  • exercising
  • changing your diet to reduce cholesterol
  • controlling blood sugar and blood pressure

Medication

Your doctor may also prescribe medications to control your cholesterol or thin your blood.

Surgery

Your doctor may recommend surgery to increase blood flow to the back of the brain if other methods don’t work. Surgical options include:

  • endarterectomy (removal of plaque from the affected artery)
  • bypass grafting (placing a new blood vessel around the site of the narrowing)
  • angioplasty (insertion of a balloon catheter into the narrow portion of an artery to compress the plaque and reduce the blockage)
  • reconstruction of the vertebrobasilar arteries

What Is the Outlook for Patients with This Condition?

Your outlook will depend on several factors, such as the underlying condition causing the disorder. For example, your prognosis may not be very good if you have a stroke. However, if the cause of the disorder is high blood pressure or diabetes, these conditions can be controlled and your prognosis will be better.

Next, your outcome will depend on the area of the brain impacted. Your outlook will be poor if you lose consciousness or are unable to move your arms or legs. However, your outlook will be good if your symptoms are not severe and can be reversed.

Finally, your outcome will depend on your age and health. Younger patients in generally good health will have a good chance for making a full recovery.

How Can Vertebrobasilar Circulatory Disorders Be Prevented?

Reduce your risk of developing atherosclerosis or stroke to help prevent vertebrobasilar circulatory disorders. Steps that you can take include:

  • quitting smoking
  • exercising
  • treating conditions such as high blood pressure and diabetes
  • eating a healthy diet including fruits, vegetables, and whole grains
Was this article helpful? Yes No

Thank you.

Your message has been sent.

We're sorry, an error occurred.

We are unable to collect your feedback at this time. However, your feedback is important to us. Please try again later.

Article Sources:

More on Healthline

Seasonal Allergies and COPD: Tips to Avoid Complications
Seasonal Allergies and COPD: Tips to Avoid Complications
For COPD patients, allergies pose the risk of serious complications. Learn some basic tips for avoiding allergy-related complications of COPD in this slideshow.
Numbness, Muscle Pain and Other RA Symptoms
Numbness, Muscle Pain and Other RA Symptoms
The symptoms of RA are more than just joint pain and stiffness. Common symptoms include loss of feeling, muscle pain, and more. Learn more in this slideshow.
Famous Athletes with Asthma
Famous Athletes with Asthma
Asthma shouldn’t be a barrier to staying active and fit. Learn about famous athletes who didn’t let asthma stop them from achieving their goals.
Migraine vs. Chronic Migraine: What Are the Differences?
Migraine vs. Chronic Migraine: What Are the Differences?
There is not just one type of migraine. Chronic migraine is one subtype of migraine. Understand what sets these two conditions apart.
Timeline of an Anaphylactic Reaction
Timeline of an Anaphylactic Reaction
From first exposure to life-threatening complications, learn how quickly an allergy attack can escalate and why it can become life threatening.
Advertisement
Advertisement
Advertisement