- Abnormal uterine bleeding is any vaginal bleeding that occurs between periods. This is also called intermenstrual bleeding, spotting, and metrorrhagia.
- You should see your doctor if you have abnormal vaginal bleeding. The cause of the bleeding could be serious and should be determined.
- You should seek immediate medical help if pain, dizziness, fatigue, or fever occurs in addition to abnormal vaginal bleeding.
Vaginal bleeding between periods is also called intermenstrual bleeding, spotting, and metrorrhagia. When bleeding occurs between normal periods, there are many possible causes.
While some causes may be easy to treat, others can indicate a serious underlying condition. Whether you notice spotting or heavier bleeding in between periods, it’s important to see your doctor for testing, diagnosis, and treatment options. Potential causes of bleeding between periods include:
- a growth in the uterus or cervix
- a change in medication
- a miscarriage
- vaginal dryness
- a hormone imbalance
Bleeding between periods isn’t a normal part of the menstrual cycle. The average cycle lasts 21 to 35 days. Normal vaginal bleeding, also known as your period, can happen for a few days to a week. Any bleeding outside of this is considered abnormal and can be caused by a variety of factors. These include:
Estrogen and progesterone are the two hormones that regulate your cycle. You may have spotting if they get out of balance. Dysfunctional ovaries, thyroid gland problems, and starting and stopping birth control pills, can all affect your hormone balance.
It should be noted that when starting any type of hormonal contraceptive, abnormal bleeding is common during the first three months, according to the National Health Services of the United Kingdom. These contraceptives include:
- birth control pills
- intrauterine device
- contraceptive patch
- contraceptive implant or injection
Complications during pregnancy can cause spotting. Both a miscarriage and an ectopic pregnancy can cause bleeding. An ectopic pregnancy occurs when the fertilized egg implants itself in the fallopian tube instead of the uterus.
These are noncancerous growths that form in the uterus. They aren’t uncommon in women who’ve given birth.
Vaginal bleeding between periods may indicate an infection of the reproductive organs. Infection can cause inflammation and bleeding. Causes include:
- sexually transmitted infection
- vaginal douching
- pelvic inflammatory disease, which is marked by inflammation of the reproductive organs leading to scarring
Less commonly, a cancer of any of these organs can cause bleeding:
Other possible causes of vaginal bleeding are rare and include having an object in the vagina, extreme stress, and diabetes.
You should see your doctor anytime you have abnormal vaginal bleeding. The cause of the bleeding could be serious and should be determined. You should see your doctor right away if you’re pregnant and have vaginal bleeding.
If you have other serious symptoms in addition to bleeding, you may need emergency medical attention. These serious symptoms include:
When you see your doctor about bleeding between periods, be prepared to answer questions about your symptoms. It’s helpful to keep a record of your cycle. Take note of when your periods begin and end, the heaviness and duration of your flow, and when and how much you bleed between periods. Your doctor will want to know about any other symptoms that you’ve experienced and any medications you’re taking.
Your doctor will also likely give you a physical exam, including a pelvic exam.
Diagnostic tests can help your doctor find the cause of the bleeding. Your doctor may draw blood to check hormone levels. You may need to have cultures taken or tissue removed from your cervix or the lining of the uterus for testing, which is called a biopsy. Your doctor may also want to perform an ultrasound. An ultrasound is an imaging technique that uses sound waves to create a picture of your reproductive organs.
In some cases, this kind of abnormal bleeding will resolve on its own. However, for some women, the underlying cause requires treatment. Ignoring the problem and failing to see a doctor can lead to a worsening of the problem. If the cause of the bleeding is an infection, cancer, or another serious disorder, the consequences could be life-threatening.
You may not be able to prevent bleeding between periods depending on the cause. However, in some cases, preventive measures can help. Maintain a healthy lifestyle and a normal weight because being overweight can lead to abnormal periods. If you take birth control pills, do so as directed to avoid a hormonal imbalance. Exercise moderately to maintain health and reduce stress.
To manage pain, use ibuprofen or naproxen, which can actually help reduce bleeding. Avoid taking aspirin, which may increase your risk of bleeding.