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class="box-inner-sticky layerie7"> <div class="breadcrumb"> <ul> <li itemscope="" itemtype="http://data-vocabulary.org/Breadcrumb"> <a href="http://www.healthline.com/" itemprop="url"><span itemprop="title">Healthline</span></a> <span class="icon-sep">→</span> </li><li itemscope="" itemtype="http://data-vocabulary.org/Breadcrumb"><a href="http://www.healthline.com/directory/reference-library-a" itemprop="url"><span itemprop="title">Reference Library</span></a> <span class="icon-sep">→</span></li> <li itemscope="" itemtype="http://data-vocabulary.org/Breadcrumb"><span itemprop="title">Speech Disorders</span></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- box-inner-sticky --> <div class="box-left-border-persist"><!-- left sticky box border --></div> <div class="box-right-border-persist"><!-- right sticky box border --></div> </div><!-- box-sticky --> </div> </div> </div> </div><!-- header --><div class="hl" id="hl"> <div class="container c"> <div class="hl-loading-mask"> <div aria-hidden="true" class="hl-loading-mask-spinner hl-icon-spinner spinner--steps"></div> </div> <div class="overlay-simple overlay-sharebar" id="overlaySharebar"> <div class="overlay-content"> </div> <div class="overlay-footer"> <div class="overlay-close">Cancel</div> </div> </div> <header class="hl-title-area"> <h1>Speech Disorders</h1> <p class="attribution" id="byline"> Written by April Kahn | Published on <meta content="2012-07-08" itemprop="datePublished"/>July 8, 2012<br/>Medically Reviewed by <a href="http://www.healthline.com/health/medical-board">Jennifer Wider, MD</a> </p> <div class="hl-widget-sharebar c"></div> <div class="sharebarContainer"><a class="link-sharebar" href="#overlaySharebar" id="sharebarLink" rel="#overlaySharebar"></a></div> </header> <nav class="hl-tab-navigation"> <div class="hl-arrow-tabnav hl-left-arrow-tabnav hl-icon-left-arrow"></div> <div class="hl-lpipe-tabnav"></div> <div class="hl-tabs-tabnav"> <ul> <li><a href="#Overview"> Overview</a></li> <li><a href="#Causes"> Causes</a></li> <li><a href="#Symptoms"> Symptoms</a></li> <li><a href="#Diagnosis"> Diagnosis</a></li> <li><a href="#Treatments"> Treatments </a></li> <li><a href="#Outlook"> Outlook</a></li> <li><a href="#Complications"> Complications</a></li> </ul></div> <div class="hl-rpipe-tabnav"></div> <div class="hl-arrow-tabnav hl-right-arrow-tabnav hl-icon-right-arrow"></div> </nav> <div class="grid648"> <div class="container-article" itemscope="" itemtype="http://schema.org/Article"> <article class="hl-article-toc"> <h2 class="content_head" id="TOC_TITLE_HDR_1"><a name="Overview"></a>What are Speech Disorders? </h2><div class="content_body" id="TOC_TITLE_1"> <p>Speech disorders can affect the way a person creates sounds. These sounds, of course, help us to form words and are necessary for communication with other people. Speech disorders can affect both adults and children. Certain voice disorders may also be considered speech disorders.</p><p> One of the most commonly experienced speech disorders is <strong>stuttering</strong>. Other speech disorders include:</p> <ul> <li><strong>apraxia</strong>: a motor speech disorder caused by damage to the parts of the brain related to speaking<strong></strong></li> <li><strong>dysarthria</strong>: a motor speech disorder in which the muscles of the <A id="hllink72" class="hllink hllink-auto" href="http://www.healthline.com/human-body-maps/mouth">mouth</A>, face or respiratory system may become weak or have difficulty moving.<strong></strong></li> </ul> <p>Some people with speech disorders are aware of what they would like to say, but are <A id="hllink82" class="hllink hllink-auto" href="http://www.healthline.com/health/unable-to-control-emotions">unable</A> to articulate their thoughts. This may lead to self-esteem issues and the development of <A id="hllink88" class="hllink hllink-auto" href="http://www.healthline.com/health/depression">depression</A>. If treated early, these conditions can be corrected. </p> </div> <h2 class="content_head" id="TOC_TITLE_HDR_2"><a name="Causes"></a>What Causes Speech Disorders? </h2> <div class="content_body" id="TOC_TITLE_2"> <p>Speech disorders affect the vocal cords, muscles, nerves, and other structures within the throat.</p><p> Speech disorders can be caused by:</p> <ul> <li>vocal cord damage</li> <li>brain damage</li> <li>muscle weakness</li> <li>respiratory weakness</li> <li>strokes</li> <li><A id="hllink116" class="hllink hllink-auto" href="http://www.healthline.com/health/polyps">polyps</A> or nodules on the vocal cords</li> <li>vocal cord paralysis</li> </ul> <p>People who have certain medical or developmental conditions may also have speech disorders. Common conditions that can lead to speech disorders are:</p> <ul> <li>autism</li> <li>attention deficit hyperactivity disorder</li> <li>strokes</li> <li>oral cancer</li> <li>laryngeal cancer</li> <li>Huntington’s disease</li> <li>dementia</li> <li>amyotrophic lateral sclerosis</li> </ul> <p>Speech disorders may be hereditary, or they can develop over time.</p> </div> <h2 class="content_head" id="TOC_TITLE_HDR_3"><a name="Symptoms"></a>What Are the Signs of a Speech Disorder? </h2> <div class="content_body" id="TOC_TITLE_3"> <p>Depending on what causes the speech disorder, several symptoms may be present.</p><p> Common symptoms experienced by people with speech disorders are:</p> <ul> <li>repeating sounds (most often seen in people who <A id="hllink151" class="hllink hllink-auto" href="http://www.healthline.com/health/stuttering">stutter</A>)</li> <li>adding extra sounds and words</li> <li>elongating words</li> <li>making jerky movements while talking (usually involving the head)</li> <li>blinking several times while talking</li> <li>visible frustration when trying to communicate</li> <li>taking frequent pauses when talking</li> <li>distorting sounds when talking</li> <li><A id="hllink158" class="hllink hllink-auto" href="http://www.healthline.com/health/hoarseness">hoarseness</A> (raspy- or gravely-sounding voice)</li> </ul> </div> <h2 class="content_head" id="TOC_TITLE_HDR_4"><a name="Diagnosis"></a>How Are Speech Disorders Diagnosed? </h2> <div class="content_body" id="TOC_TITLE_4"> <h3>Denver Articulation Screening Exam</h3> <p>The most commonly used testing system in place to diagnose speech disorders is called the Denver Articulation Screening Examination. This test is typically used to evaluate the clarity in pronunciation in children between the ages of 2 and 7. This five-minute test uses various exercises to assess the child’s speech. </p> <h3>Early Language Milestones Scale 2</h3> <p>This is a test used to determine a child’s language development. This test can quickly identify delayed speech or language disorders. </p> <h3>Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Revised</h3> <p>This test measures a person’s vocabulary and ability to speak. The person will listen to various words and choose pictures that describe the words. People who have severe mental retardation and those who are blind will not able to take this assessment. The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test has been revised many times since its first version was administered in 1959. <strong></strong></p> </div> <h2 class="content_head" id="TOC_TITLE_HDR_5"><a name="Treatments"></a>How Are Speech Disorders Treated? </h2> <div class="content_body" id="TOC_TITLE_5"> <p>Mild speech disorders may not require any treatment. Some speech disorders may simply go away on their own. However, speech disorders that do not improve on their own may be helped with speech therapy. </p><p> Treatment can vary and depends on the type of disorder. In speech therapy, a professional therapist will guide you through exercises that work to strengthen the muscles in the face and throat. You will also learn to control your breathing while speaking. Learning muscle strengthening exercises and how to control breathing helps to improve the way your words sound. You will also learn ways to practice smoother, more fluent speech.</p><p> Some people suffer with nervousness or depression caused by embarrassment from a speech disorder. Talk therapy may be helpful in these situations. In talk therapy a mental healthcare specialist will discuss ways to improve your outlook of the condition as well as ways to cope with the condition. If your depression is severe, antidepressant medications can be prescribed to help. </p> </div> <h2 class="content_head" id="TOC_TITLE_HDR_6"><a name="Outlook"></a>Long-Term Outlook </h2> <div class="content_body" id="TOC_TITLE_6"> <p>The outlook is improved for people who seek early treatment. Seeking treatment early helps you prevent a speech disorder from worsening. The outlook for those with permanent disabilities depends upon the severity of the disability.</p> </div> <h2 class="content_head" id="TOC_TITLE_HDR_7"><a name="Complications"></a>Potential Complications of Speech Disorders </h2> <div class="content_body" id="TOC_TITLE_7"> <p>Untreated speech disorders may cause a person to experience a great deal of <A id="hllink394" class="hllink hllink-auto" href="http://www.healthline.com/health/anxiety">anxiety</A> when talking to people. Over time, this anxiety can trigger anxiety disorders or a <A id="hllink411" class="hllink hllink-auto" href="http://www.healthline.com/health/phobia-simple-specific">phobia</A> of speaking in public. Early treatment for anxiety can help prevent the development of anxiety disorders or phobias. Treatment options include talk therapy and anti-anxiety medications.</p> </div></article> <div class="span12 box-share-help-feedback"> <div class="span5"> <div class="box-article-helpful"> <div class="box-helpful-question"> Was this article helpful? <span class="helpful-option-yes">Yes</span> <span class="helpful-option-no">No</span> </div> <div class="box-helpful-confirmation"></div> </div> </div> <div class="span3"> <div class="box-link-feedback"> <span class="icon-email"></span> <a class="link-feedback" href="#feedbackOverlay" id="feedbackLink" rel="#feedbackOverlay">Feedback?</a> </div> <div class="overlay-simple overlay-feedback" id="feedbackOverlay"> <div class="overlay-content"> <div class="box-form-feedback" id="feedbackformdiv"> <form action="/v2/widgetemail" id="feedbackform"> <input name="to" type="hidden" value="hrl"></input> <input id="urlfield" name="urlfield" type="hidden" value=""></input> <h2>Send us your feedback</h2> <p class="box-message">We are unable to respond directly to questions, but your feedback is greatly appreciated, and will be taken into account in our ongoing review of our Health Reference Library.<br/></p> <p> <label>Your Name:</label><br/> <input class="field-name" id="nametext" name="nametext" placeholder="Name Here" type="text"></input> <span class="box-msg-error" id="box-msg-name"><span class="icon-error">✖</span> <span id="errorMsgName">Please enter your name</span></span> </p> <p> <label>Your Email:</label><br/> <input class="field-email-address" id="feedbackemail" name="emailaddress" placeholder="name@example.com" type="email"></input> <span class="box-msg-error" id="box-msg-email"><span class="icon-error">✖</span> <span id="errorMsgEmail">Please enter your email</span></span> </p> <p> <input id="copy" name="copy" type="checkbox"></input> <label>Send me a copy</label> </p> <p class="box-textarea"> <textarea class="field-message" cols="60" id="feedbacktextarea" name="messagetext" rows="4"></textarea> </p> <div class="textarea-char-count" id="charcount">0</div> <p class="box-buttons"> <button class="btn-cancel" name="feedbackcancelbutton" type="button">Cancel</button> <button class="btn-send-msg">Send Message</button> <span class="box-loading"><img alt="" src="/resources/base/images/ajax-loader.gif"/></span> </p> </form> <p class="box-privacy"><span class="icon-lock"></span> Email addresses will not be shared with 3rd parties. See <a href="http://www.healthline.com/health/privacy-policy" target="_blank">privacy policy</a></p> </div> <div class="box-thankyou" id="thankyou"> <h2><span class="icon-green-checkmark"></span> Thank you.</h2> <p>Your message has been sent.</p> </div> <div class="box-submit-error" id="submissionerror"> <h2>We're sorry, an error occurred.</h2> <p>We are unable to collect your feedback at this time. However, your feedback is important to us. Please try again later.</p> </div> </div><div class="overlay-footer"> <div class="overlay-close">Close</div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row12 hl-article-references"> <div class="span8"> <div class="box-article-source "> <p class="references-title">Article Sources:</p> <div class="basesources"> <ul> <li>Adult Speech Language. (n.d.). American Speech Language Hearing Association. Retrieved July 3, 2012, from <a href="http://www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/AdultSandL.htm">http://www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/AdultSandL.htm</a> </li> <li>Child Speech Language. (n.d.). American Speech Language Hearing Association. Retrieved July 3, 2012, from <a href="http://www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/ChildSandL.htm">http://www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/ChildSandL.htm</a> </li> <li>Copland, James M.D. Early Language Milestone Scale 2. (n.d.). Retrieved July 3, 2012, from <a href="http://www.drcoplan.com/early-language-milestone-scale-2">http://www.drcoplan.com/early-language-milestone-scale-2</a> </li> <li>Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test: Revised. (n.d.). Nova Southern University. Retrieved July 3, 2012, from <a href="http://cps.nova.edu/~cpphelp/PPVT-R.html">http://cps.nova.edu/~cpphelp/PPVT-R.html</a> </li> </ul></div> <div class="morebox"> <div id="moresources" style="display:none"> <ul class="morelist"></ul> </div> <a href="#" id="showmoresources">Show all</a> </div> </div><!-- end of article source block --> </div><!-- article source span --> <div class="span4"> <div class="box-hrl-logo-src"> <div class="hrl-logo"></div> </div> </div><!-- hrl logo span --> </div><!-- row12 --> <div class="toc-content-promotion"> <!--hl-linking-ignore-start--> <div class="overlay-content-promotion"> <div class="content-promotion-header"> <div class="triangle"></div> <div class="content-promotion-title"> <p class="content-promotion-title-text">More on Healthline</p> </div> <div class="content-promotion-close"><a class="link-close-overlay-content-promotion" href="#"></a></div> </div> <div class="content-promotion-stories"> <div class="content-promotion-story click-link" data="/health-slideshow/warning-signs-of-ankylosing-spondylitis"> <div class="content-promotion-title">Beyond Back Pain: 5 Warning Signs of Ankylosing Spondylitis</div> <div class="content-promotion-image"> <a href="http://www.healthline.com/health-slideshow/warning-signs-of-ankylosing-spondylitis" title="Beyond Back Pain: 5 Warning Signs of Ankylosing Spondylitis"><img alt="Beyond Back Pain: 5 Warning Signs of Ankylosing Spondylitis" src="/hlcmsresource/images/slideshow/Five-warning-signs-ankylosing-spondylitis/194x105_Five_Warning_Signs_Of_Ankylosing_Spondylitis_1.jpg"/></a> </div> <div class="content-promotion-text"> <div class="content-promotion-disclaimer">There are a number of potential causes of back pain, but one you might not know about is ankylosing spondylitis (AS). 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//after last section $( '<div data-str-native-key="f66f2fdd" style="display: none;"></div>' ).insertAfter( $( '#TOC_TITLE_' + contentSectionsLength ) ); // if sharethrough library loaded, then boot up if( typeof STR === 'object' ) { STR.Tag.boot(); } } // test if phone breakpoint }); // dom ready }); // require call </script> <script> require(['jquery',"base/dfpmanager","base/responsive-ads","matchmedia"],function($,AppDfpmanager,AppResponsiveAds){ $(function() { // determine if pb ad is shown on page load var isAdOnPageLoad = true; var breakpointsToHideAd = []; var breakpointsToHideAdByPageType = []; breakpointsToHideAd = ['600','480','320']; var isAdOnPageLoad = AppResponsiveAds.getShowAdOnPageLoad("PB",breakpointsToHideAd,breakpointsToHideAdByPageType); var cfgDfpManager = { isAdOnPageLoad: isAdOnPageLoad, adshost : 'http://ads.healthline.com', logged_in : 'false', dfpAdSite : 'hn.us.hl.lc.x.x.x', btk1 : '', btk2 : '', kw : 'otherneurologicaldisorders,speech_disorders,8114459', k1 : 'otherneurologicaldisorders', k2 : 'neurological', k3 : 'health', pos : 'lb', ugc : 'false', ac : '', uac : '', akh : '', aks : '5000', env : '', msiteID : '', adTagPageUrl : encodeURIComponent('/health/speech-disorders'), partner : 'healthline', pg_dart_site : 'hn.us.hl.lc.x.x.x', pg_dart_zone : 'otherneurologicaldisorders', pg_k2 : 'neurological', pHLID : '8114459', HLID : '8114459', visit_type : 'HCviewer', yeildex : 'true', targetsrc : '' }; 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