A glowing tan has become associated with health, youth, and attractiveness. With regards to skin damage, the plain truth is that a glowing tan equals a blistering sunburn. A tan or a sunburn is your body’s indication that you have been exposed to too much ultraviolet (UV) radiation.
A tan is a skin reaction. Exposure to the sun’s UV rays causes skin cells (melanocytes) to darken your skin. The darkening process is actually your skin’s defense against more UV damage.
Ultraviolet light is the invisible radiation in light and contains the following three layers:
- UVA: weakest; ages skin, tends to cause allergic reactions (rash)
- UVB: burns and ages skin, most responsible for sunburns
- UVC: most dangerous, but not seen as a threat because it does not penetrate the Earth’s ozone layer
Both UVB and UVA rays penetrate the skin and pose a risk for skin cancer.
Historically, tan skin revealed that you did hard labor outdoors. Most people frowned on tanned skin, seeing it as weathered and a sign of your working class. The wealthier class stayed inside or shielded themselves with parasols when outside to maintain their porcelain skin.
Enter Coco Chanel. The fashion designer started a fad in 1923 when she returned from a trip to the Riviera with a brand-new shade of golden brown skin. A trend was born. Everyone, from celebrities to housewives, suddenly craved the sun and sought sunny locations to work on their tans. By the 1950s, bikini bathing suits appeared on the scene and heightened the craze for a full-body tan.
As the decades passed, the rise in skin cancers began to cause alarm. Warnings came from dermatologists and doctors about the skin damage and dangers of the sun’s harmful radiation.
Tanning booths appeared in the early part of the 20th century as a means of medical research. In light of doctors’ warnings about sun radiation, tanning beds gained popularity in the 1970s as a supposedly healthy alternative to tanning in natural sunlight.
Despite claims to offer a safe alternative, the truth about the dangers of tanning beds eventually surfaced. Now, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) advises that we completely avoid artificial UV sources such as tanning beds. According to the FDA, sunlamps may be more dangerous than the sun. Unlike the sun, tanning beds can be used at the same intensity every day of the year, increasing exposure and health risk.
Tanning beds are simply not good for you. Avoiding the sun but replacing it with a tanning bed is not an effective solution. In combined studies by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), findings show that “the risk of cutaneous melanoma is increased by 75 percent when the use of tanning devices starts before age 30.”
Tanning bed risks include the following:
- cancer risk: UV radiation — both natural and artificial — increases your risk of developing skin cancer. It also puts your eyes at risk for cataracts and corneal burns.
- premature aging: Your skin loses elasticity from tanning and can develop early wrinkles.
- immune suppression: UVB radiation may negatively affect your body’s immune system, leaving you more vulnerable to disease.
A study by North Carolina’s Wake Forest University suggests that tanning may have an addiction-like appeal. Findings indicated that endorphins can trigger a "high" in tanners, followed by withdrawal-like symptoms if denied their “fix.”
Tanning salons claim to offer a safe alternative to the sun. However, the UV radiation released in a tanning bed poses serious risks for developing health problems. Marketing can do wonders, but awareness can do more. Staying informed will help you make healthier choices.
If you’re craving a golden glow, there are safer options available on most drugstore shelves. Spray tans and tanning lotions use the naturally occurring chemical dihydroxyacetone (DHA) to darken your skin. DHA is a sugar derived from plants, which has been used for decades in sunless tanning products. Fortunately, time has provided some tweaking and improvements to the formulas. What once delivered an orange result has evolved to offer a more natural-looking skin color.
Although applying sprays can be messy, handheld spray tanning products are approved by the FDA. If you have skin problems, such as excessively dry skin, you may need to blot these patchy areas. They will likely absorb more spray. Always apply the sprays in rooms with proper ventilation to avoid inhaling any fumes.
Learn about high-tech sun-protective clothing.