Shock is a state of physical shutdown. Your body enters shock when there is not enough circulating blood. Shock can cause multiple organ failure. It can lead to life-threatening complications, such as heart failure.
There are many types of shock. Major types of shock include:
All forms of shock are life-threatening. Any symptoms of shock should be reported to a medical professional immediately.
Recognizing the symptoms of shock can save your life. These symptoms signal that your body is shutting down. They are a sign that you need to get help immediately.
Call 911 for help if you have any of the symptoms of shock. You may experience one or many of the following:
- decrease in blood pressure
- rapid, weak, or absent pulse
- irregular heart rate
- cool, clammy skin
- rapid and shallow breathing
- decrease in urine
- chest pain
- thirst and dry mouth
- low blood sugar
- dilated pupils or lackluster eyes
- fever (septic shock only)
- hives and swelling of the face and throat (anaphylactic shock only)
Anything that affects the flow of blood through the body can cause shock. Some common causes of shock are:
- significant blood loss
- allergic reaction
- reduced blood pressure
- heart failure
- nerve damage
- blood infections
There are four major types of shock. However, each type of shock can be caused by a number of different events.
Anaphylactic shock is a complication of a severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis). Allergic reactions occur when your body mistakenly sees a harmless substance as harmful. This causes it to send out antibodies to attack. The symptoms of an allergic reaction are actually caused by your body’s response, not by the allergen itself.
Anaphylaxis is usually caused by food allergies or insect bites. A mild reaction may just cause symptoms such as hives or a rash. A major reaction can lead to:
- difficulty breathing (due to swelling in the airways)
- low blood pressure
- blocked airways
- rapid pulse
People with severe allergies often carry a device called an EpiPen/Twinject. This is a device that can automatically inject a hormone called epinephrine. It is used to stop an allergic reaction and prevent anaphylactic shock.
Damage to the heart can decrease the blood flow to the body. This can lead to cardiogenic shock.
Common causes of cardiogenic shock are:
- heart muscle damage
- irregular heart rhythm
- tears in the heart
- very slow heart rhythm
This form of shock is brought on by severe blood loss. After blood loss, there is not enough blood to supply the vital organs. This leads to shock.
Sometimes infections cause bacteria to enter the bloodstream. This can lead to a condition called sepsis (blood poisoning). Septic shock occurs when bacteria and their toxins damage tissues or organs in the body.
- Check to see if the person is still breathing and if he or she has a heartbeat.
- If you don’t detect a heartbeat or breathing, begin rescue breathing and emergency CPR.
If the person is breathing:
- Check his or her breathing every five minutes.
- Lay him or her on his or her back.
- Elevate his or her feet at least 12 inches above the ground. This position is referred to as the shock position. It helps keep blood in the vital organs, where it is most needed.
If you suspect movement may harm the person, leave him or her lying flat. You should not move someone who has injuries to the:
Apply first aid to any visible wounds.
If the person begins to vomit, turn his or her head sideways. This helps to prevent choking.
However, if the person has an injury to the spine, do not turn his or her head. Instead, stabilize the neck, then roll his or her entire body to the side.
The symptoms of shock are often enough to diagnose the condition. Doctors will also look for:
- low blood pressure
- weak pulse
- rapid heartbeat
The first priority is lifesaving treatment. The goal is to get blood circulating through the body again as quickly as possible. Once the person is stable, doctors will then try to diagnose whatever caused the shock. This is often done using imaging and blood tests.
Imaging tests may be used to check for injuries such as:
- organ rupture
- muscle or tendon tears
- abnormal growths
Such tests include:
- CT scan (computed tomography scan)
- MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
Blood tests can look for:
- an infection in the blood (sepsis)
- significant blood loss
- signs of drug or medication overdose
Treatment for shock depends on why the shock occurred. The different types of shock are all treated differently. For example:
- Hypovolemic shock is usually treated by blood transfusion. You will receive donor blood to replace the blood you lost. It is pumped into your vein through an intravenous (IV) line.
- Shock caused by dehydration is treated with IV fluids.
- Shock caused by anaphylaxis is treated with epinephrine and other drugs.
- Cardiogenic shock is treated by improving blood flow through your heart.
A full recovery from shock is possible. However, recovery depends greatly on the length of time the person was in shock. Other factors that determine recovery are:
- what organs were affected
- extent of organ damage
- extent of nursing care
- cause of shock
Shock has a high risk of death. It is critical to call 911 immediately if you find someone experiencing symptoms of shock.
Some forms of shock are preventable. Take the following steps to reduce your risk of developing shock:
- Stay hydrated. This is especially important when it is very hot or humid. Make sure you drink the recommended eight to 10 glasses of water per day. If you’re active, increase your fluid intake.
- Wear proper footwear to prevent falls.
- To prevent injury, wear protective gear when taking part in contact sports or using dangerous equipment.
- Carry an epinephrine injector if you have severe allergies. This can stop an allergic reaction before it becomes anaphylactic shock.