Shigellosis is a bacterial infection that affects the digestive system. Shigellosis is caused by a group of bacteria called Shigella. The Shigella bacterium is spread through contaminated water or food or through contact with contaminated feces. The bacteria release toxins that irritate the intestines. The primary symptom of shigellosis is diarrhea.
According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), about 14,000 people in the United States report having shigellosis every year (CDC). The symptoms vary in intensity. You may have a mild shigellosis infection and not even realize or report it.
Toddlers and preschoolers are more likely to get shigellosis than older children and adults. This may be because young children put their fingers in their mouths often and are more likely to ingest the bacteria. The large number of diaper changes in childcare centers can also increase the concentration of infection in this age group.
Frequent bouts of watery diarrhea are the main symptom of shigellosis. Abdominal cramping, nausea, and vomiting may also occur. Many people who have shigellosis also have either blood or mucus in their stool, and they may run a fever.
Symptoms usually begin within three days of coming in contact with Shigella. In some cases, however, symptoms of infection may appear as much as a week after contact.
Diarrhea and other signs of shigellosis usually last between two and seven days. Mild infection lasting a couple of days may not require treatment. However, staying hydrated in between bouts of diarrhea is crucial. Call your doctor if you have diarrhea for more than three days. This is very important, particularly if you cannot keep down food or water. Dehydration is a real danger associated with shigellosis.
Combating dehydration is the main goal of treatment for most cases of shigellosis. It is important to drink plenty of fluids, especially electrolyte solutions, many of which are available over the counter. It is usually not advisable to take any type of medication to relieve your diarrhea, as this will keep the bacteria in your system longer and may make the infection worse.
Moderate-to-severe infection may require medical treatment. Medical treatment will usually include antibiotics to eliminate the bacteria from your digestive tract. Your doctor may test your stool to confirm that Shigella is the source of the infection. Confirmation of Shigella helps your doctor choose the right medication to fight shigellosis. Drug options include powerful antibiotic medications:
- azithromycin (Zithromax)
- ciprofloxacin (Cipro)
- co-trimoxazole (Bactrim)
Hospitalization for shigellosis is rare in the United States. However, in some severe situations, it is required. Patients who have extreme nausea and vomiting may need intravenous fluids and medication.
Most people have no lasting ill effects from shigellosis.
The CDC reports that approximately two percent of people infected with Shigella flexneri (one of several types of Shigella) develop a condition called post-infection arthritis after having shigellosis (CDC). Symptoms of post-infection arthritis include joint pain, painful urination, and eye irritation. Post-infection arthritis can become a chronic condition that lasts several months, years, or the rest of your life. It is caused by a reaction to the Shigella infection and happens only in people who are genetically predisposed to it.
Shigella is a group of several different bacteria. Once you have been infected with one type of Shigella, you are not likely to be infected by the same bacteria again. However, you may become infected by a different bacterium from the same family.
You can prevent shigellosis by practicing good personal hygiene. Wash your hands before and after you use the bathroom or change a diaper. Discard dirty diapers in a closed bag or trashcan to prevent the spread of the bacteria. Use soap and warm water every time you wash your hands. Wipe down changing tables and kitchen counters with antibacterial wipes before and after use.
Avoid close personal contact with someone who is infected with Shigella until at least two days after the diarrhea has ended.
People who have shigellosis should not prepare food for others until they feel better and stop having diarrhea. Your doctor may test your stool again after your symptoms end to be sure Shigella is no longer present.