Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease where granulomas (clumps of immune cells, usually macrophages) form in various organs. This causes organ inflammation. Doctors believe that sarcoidosis may be caused by an abnormal immune system reaction. This reaction may be stimulated by antigens, such as viruses, bacteria, or chemicals.
Areas of the body commonly affected by sarcoidosis include:
The exact cause of sarcoidosis is unknown. However, possible causes and risk factors include:
- having a prior infection
- having a sensitivity to environmental factors, such as dust
- being African-American
- being female
- having a family history of sarcoidosis
This condition is rare in children. Symptom onset is usually between the ages of 20 and 40.
Some people with sarcoidosis do not have symptoms. However, general symptoms may include:
Symptoms depend on which part of the body is affected by the disease. This disease commonly affects the lungs. Lung symptoms can include:
- a dry cough
- shortness of breath
- chest pain around the breast bone
Skin symptoms may include:
Nervous system symptoms may include:
Eye symptoms may include:
It can be difficult to diagnose sarcoidosis. Symptoms can mimic those of other diseases, such as arthritis or cancer. If you have symptoms of sarcoidosis, your doctor will conduct a variety of tests to diagnose you.
Your doctor will first conduct a physical examination in order to:
- check for skin bumps or a rash
- look for swollen lymph nodes
- listen to your lungs and heart
- check for an enlarged liver or spleen
Based on the findings, your doctor may order additional diagnostic tests. These can include:
- chest X-ray - to check for granulomas and swollen lymph nodes
- chest CT scan - an imaging test that takes a cross-sectional pictures of your chest
- lung function test - to determine whether your lungs are affected
- biopsy - to take a tissue sample, which can be checked for granulomas
Your doctor may also order blood tests to check your kidney and liver function.
There is no cure for sarcoidosis. However, symptoms often improve without treatment. If your inflammation is severe, your doctor may prescribe medications, such as:
- corticosteroids - to reduce inflammation
- immunosuppressants - to decrease the immune system response
Treatment is more likely if the disease affects your:
- nervous system
The length of any therapy will vary. Some people take medication for one or two years. Others will be on medication for much longer.
Approximately two-thirds of people diagnosed with sarcoidosis do not experience complications (Mayo Clinic, 2010). However, sarcoidosis can become chronic.
When complications are present, they may include:
- lung infection
- cataracts (clouding of the lens of the eye)
- glaucoma (increased fluid pressure inside the eyes)
- kidney failure
- abnormal heart beat
- facial paralysis
- infertility or difficulty conceiving
Rarely, sarcoidosis causes severe heart and lung damage. This may require an organ transplant.
It is important to contact your doctor if you have:
- breathing difficulties
- heart palpitations
- changes in your vision or loss of vision
- eye pain
- sensitivity to light
- facial numbness
These can be signs of dangerous complications.
Your doctor may recommend that you see an eye care professional, as this disease can affect the eyes without causing symptoms.
The outlook for sarcoidosis is positive. Many people live relatively healthy, active lives. Symptoms often improve with or without treatment in about three years.
When the disease affects the lungs, about 20 percent of sufferers develop lung damage. However, few people die from sarcoidosis. The overall death rate is less than five percent (PubMed Health, 2012).
Causes of death from sarcoidosis may include:
- internal bleeding from the lung tissue
- scarring or thickening of the lungs
- heart failure