Respiratory acidosis, also called respiratory failure or ventilatory failure, causes the pH of blood and other bodily fluids to decrease, making them too acidic.
Respiratory acidosis occurs when the lungs can’t remove enough carbon dioxide (CO2). Excess CO2 makes the blood more acidic. This is because the body must balance the ions that control pH.
Normally, the lungs take in oxygen and exhale CO2. Oxygen passes from the lungs into the blood. CO2 passes from the blood into the lungs. However, sometimes the lungs cannot remove enough CO2. This may cause respiratory acidosis.
There are two forms of respiratory acidosis: acute and chronic.
Acute respiratory acidosis occurs quickly. It is a medical emergency. Left untreated, symptoms will get progressively worse. It can become life-threatening.
Chronic respiratory acidosis develops over time. It does not cause symptoms. Instead, the body adapts to the increased acidity. For example, the kidneys produce more bicarbonate to help maintain balance.
Chronic respiratory acidosis may not cause symptoms. However, it is important to see a doctor, as the underlying cause could be serious.
Initial signs of acute respiratory acidosis include:
- blurred vision
Without treatment, other symptoms may occur. These include:
There are many causes of respiratory acidosis. Some common causes of the chronic form are:
- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
- severe obesity (which can interfere with expansion of the lungs)
- neuromuscular disorders (such as multiple sclerosis)
Some common causes of the acute form are:
- obstructed airways (due to choking or other causes)
- sedative overdose
- cardiac arrest
Several tools can help doctors diagnose respiratory acidosis.
Blood Gas Measurement
This test measures oxygen and CO2 in the blood. High levels of CO2 can indicate acidosis.
Lung Function Tests
Many people with this condition have reduced lung function.
X-rays can help doctors see injuries or other problems likely to cause acidosis.
Treating acute acidosis usually means addressing the underlying cause. For example, your airway may need to be cleared. This must be done as soon as possible. Artificial ventilation may also be needed. (Madias)
With the chronic form of this disease, treatment focuses on managing underlying conditions. The goal is to improve airway function. Some strategies include using:
- antibiotics (to treat infection)
- diuretics (to reduce pressure on the heart and lungs)
- bronchodilators (to expand the airways)
- corticosteroids (to reduce inflammation)
- mechanical ventilation (in severe cases)
Respiratory acidosis has many causes, so it’s difficult to generalize about a long-term outlook. As your outlook largely depends on what is causing your disease, your doctor should be able to give you an idea of what to expect.
The best way to prevent acidosis is to avoid causes of the disease.
Choosing to live a smoke-free lifestyle may help, as smokers are at higher risk for chronic respiratory acidosis. Smoking is bad for lung function. It increases the risk of respiratory diseases and can have an adverse impact on overall quality of life.
Maintaining a healthy weight can reduce your risk of this condition.
Use caution when taking sedatives. They can interfere with your ability to breathe. Sedatives depress the central nervous system. Always read and follow the label. Never take more than is recommended. Mixing sedatives with alcohol can be fatal.