You’re looking at your skin and see some spots that don’t look quite right. Are they red and raised, or brown and flat? Learn the symptoms of psoriasis and skin cancer and how to tell these conditions apart.
Psoriasis is a chronic skin condition that causes your skin cell production to speed up. The overactive cell production causes your skin to develop red patches and formations called plaques, often with silvery white scales. These patches and scales may be sore, itchy, and even painful.
Skin cancer is a disease in which cancerous cells develop in your skin’s tissues. Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in the United States today. There are three main types of skin cancer:
Basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer are the two most common types of skin cancer. Melanoma is rarer, but it’s also much more dangerous.
These cancers typically develop on areas most exposed to direct sunlight, including:
The symptoms of psoriasis include:
- red patches covered with silvery white scales or plaques
- small patches of scales
- dry, cracked skin that may sometimes bleed
- sensations of itching, burning, and soreness
- thick, pitted fingernails
Skin cancer symptoms
Skin cancer can be hard to detect and diagnose. That’s because it often develops as just a simple change on your skin. You may notice a sore that doesn’t heal. You may also notice symptoms such as unusual spots or bumps, which may appear:
- raised, pearly, waxy, or shiny
- firm and taut
- oddly colored, such as violet, yellow, or blue
- crusty, scaly, or bleeding
Psoriasis outbreaks can be widespread and cover a large section of your body. They can also be small and cover just a few areas. The body parts most commonly affected by psoriasis include:
Each type of psoriasis is identified differently, but most go through cycles of activity and inactivity. The skin condition may be worse for a few weeks or months, and then the symptoms may fade or disappear completely. Each person’s cycle is different and often unpredictable.
Skin cancer identification
Skin cancer can be difficult to identify because it often looks like a mole or freckle. The key to identifying skin cancer is in knowing your ABCDEs:
Some skin cancers don’t grow evenly. In other words, one side of the spot won’t match the other.
If the edges of a suspicious spot are ragged, blurred, or irregular, it may be cancerous.
Cancerous spots can be brown, but they may also be black, red, yellow, white, or navy blue. Often, the color will be uneven within a single spot.
Moles and freckles rarely grow, or grow so slowly the change is almost impossible to detect. Skin cancer, however, can grow rapidly.
You may be able to detect changes in the spot over the course of a few weeks or months.
Unlike psoriasis, skin cancer spots will not disappear and come back later. They’ll remain, and mostly likely grow and change, until they’re removed and treated.
Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease. That means it can’t be cured. It can, however, be treated to reduce symptoms.
Psoriasis treatments fall into three basic categories. Your doctor may use only one of these types of treatments, or they may suggest a combination. The type of treatment you use largely depends on the severity of the psoriasis.
Treatments include the following:
Topical treatments are prescription creams, lotions, and solutions directly applied to your skin. They may help ease the symptoms of psoriasis.
Light therapy is a type of therapy where your skin is exposed to controlled doses of natural sunlight or ultraviolet (UV) light in an attempt to reduce symptoms. You should never attempt light therapy on your own. You might get too much light, which can make your condition worse.
Systemic medications are oral or injected medications, which include retinoids, biologics, and methotrexate (Trexall). These are often reserved for people with strong cases of psoriasis. Many of these treatments can only be used for short periods of time.
Skin cancer treatment
Treatment for skin cancer depends on the size and severity of the skin cancer. Typical treatments include the following:
- Surgically removing skin cancer is the best way to prevent it from spreading or growing.
- Radiation therapy involves beams of high-powered energy that can destroy cancer cells. It’s often used if your doctor cannot remove all of the skin cancer during surgery.
- Chemotherapy is an intravenous (IV) drug treatment that kills cancer cells. Some lotions and creams with cancer-killing medications may be used if you have skin cancer that’s confined to the top layers of your skin.
- Photodynamic therapy is a combination of medication and laser light that’s used to destroy cancer cells.
- Biologic therapy involves medication that boosts your body’s natural ability to fight cancer.
Treatments for skin cancer are most successful when the cancer is found early, particularly before it spreads to other organs in a process known as metastasis. The cancer is more likely to grow and spread to nearby tissues and organs if it’s not detected and treated early.
Psoriasis risk factors
Anyone can develop psoriasis. Certain risk factors increase the chances that you’ll develop the skin condition.
Psoriasis has a strong genetic connection. If one of your parents has psoriasis, the odds that you’ll develop it are much greater. If both of your parents have it, your risk is even higher.
People who are overweight or obese have an increased risk of psoriasis. Psoriasis plaques may develop in skin creases and folds.
Stress, like an infection, can impact your immune system. A stressed immune system may increase your odds for psoriasis.
You have an increased risk of developing psoriasis if you smoke. People who smoke are also more likely to develop a severe form of the disease.
Skin cancer risk factors
Anyone can develop skin cancer. Certain risk factors increase your odds.
Long-term sun exposure
A history of exposure to the sun increases your risk. Your chances of skin cancer are even higher if you have a history of sunburns.
Complexion, hair color, and eye color
People with light-colored skin, red or blonde hair, or blue or green eyes have a higher risk of skin cancer.
Certain genes are linked to skin cancer. You may have inherited genes that increase your risk of skin cancer if you have a parent or grandparent who has had skin cancer.
Having more moles than the average person puts you at an increased risk for skin cancer.
People over the age of 50 are more likely to receive a skin cancer diagnosis, but skin cancer can develop at any age.
A weakened immune system
If your immune system is affected by chronic infections or stress, your odds for developing skin cancer may be higher.
Seeing a doctor
See your doctor if you see a suspicious area on your skin and you want them to examine it. Your doctor’s first step in making a diagnosis will be to conduct a physical examination. They’ll study the area of skin you’re concerned about and ask you questions about your health history.
After that, your doctor may want to conduct a skin biopsy. During a skin biopsy, your doctor will remove a section of the skin, which they’ll send to a lab. A lab professional will examine the cells of the suspicious skin and let your doctor know their results.
In most cases, a diagnosis can be made from a skin biopsy. With those results, you and your doctor can discuss the diagnosis and your treatment options.