The short answer to the question of whether multiple sclerosis can be prevented is no. However, there has been recent research into genetic factors as well as environmental issues that may play a role in the onset of MS. There is a possibility that as research evidence becomes stronger, there might be future strategies to prevent the onset of the disease.
The possible link between limited sun exposure versus vitamin D deficiency and multiple sclerosis (MS) originated with the findings of geographic patterns in MS prevalence. There have been reports that there is a higher MS prevalence with increasing latitude and this assumption has been supported by epidemiological studies around the world. It is believed that there is an interplay among diverse multiple environmental factors including viral infections, hygiene, sunlight-UV exposure, smoking and nutrition along with possible genetic characteristics that MAY increase potential risk factors for MS.
Although research interest in the relationship between Vitamin D and MS has continued to increase, many key questions remain still unanswered. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) recently issued guidance on Vitamin D and calcium intake for the general population and bone health, but no specific recommendations were provided for disease specific subgroups (i.e. autoimmune diseases and specifically MS) based on the consideration of insufficient and controversial data available so far.