Marijuana and Epilepsy

Written by Jeri Burtchell | Published on June 30, 2014
Medically Reviewed by George T. Krucik, MD, MBA on June 30, 2014

Overview

Could a plant that was introduced to the United States by early settlers provide relief for people with epilepsy today? Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) has been grown in the United States since the early 1700s. Settlers brought the plant from Europe to produce hemp. Its use as a medicine was recorded in a reference book from 1850 titled “United States Pharmacopeia”.

According to a recent paper in The Journal of the International League Against Epilepsy (Epilepsia), marijuana was used to treat a variety of conditions in ancient China as far back as 2,700 B.C. They included:

There is also evidence it was used in medieval times to treat:

  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • epilepsy
  • inflammation
  • pain
  • fever

Marijuana was given the status of a “schedule 1” drug class in the U.S. in 1970. As a result, studying how safe and effective it is as a medicine has been difficult for researchers.

Claims and Findings

Many people suffering from epilepsy say marijuana stops their seizures, but there is little scientific evidence. Researchers must apply for a special license from the Drug Enforcement Agency in order to study marijuana. They need permission to access to a supply kept by the National Institute for Drug Abuse. These challenges have slowed research.

But there have been a handful of studies conducted in the U.S. since 1970.  Other studies, even some ongoing, have been done around the world.

The findings reveal that the most well-known active ingredient in marijuana, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is just one of a group of compounds which have medicinal effects. Another, known as cannabidiol (CBD), does not cause the “high” associated with marijuana. It is emerging as one of the plant’s leading medicinal compounds.

How It Works

Both THC and CBD are in a group of substances called cannabinoids. They bind to receptors in the brain and are effective against pain associated with conditions like multiple sclerosis and HIV/AIDS. By attaching to receptors, they block the transmission of pain signals. CBD binds to more than just pain receptors. It appears to work on other signaling systems within the brain and has protective and anti-inflammatory properties. 

Exactly how it works in epilepsy isn’t fully understood. But there have been small studies that show the results of using CBD. Studies of mice published in Epilepsia have shown mixed results. While some found CBD was effective against seizures, others did not. This may be due to the way the drug was given, since some methods work better than others. 

The idea of using the compounds found in marijuana to treat epilepsy is gaining appeal. Researchers must confirm its effectiveness, and solve the problem of strength and how to give it. Potency can vary widely from plant to plant. Inhaling the drug versus eating CBD can alter the strength as well.

Side Effects

While there is mounting consensus among people with epilepsy that medicinal marijuana is effective, researchers caution that the side effects need to be better understood. It’s also not known how CBD might interact with other medications.

Like most anti-seizure medications, marijuana has been shown to affect memory. This might lead to missed doses, which can mean that seizures return. A study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences suggested that cannabis use in children can result in a measurable drop in cognitive abilities.

Side effects might also depend on how the drug is taken. Smoking it would pose a risk to the lungs that eating it would not.

Talk to your doctor if you are suffering from epileptic seizures and are not responding to traditional treatments. They can explain your options and provide information about medical marijuana use if you live in a state that allows it.

There are still other options if your state has no provision law for medical marijuana. Your doctor can share the latest research news with you and help you determine if a clinical trial for new forms of treatment or therapy might be right for you.

Was this article helpful? Yes No

Thank you.

Your message has been sent.

We're sorry, an error occurred.

We are unable to collect your feedback at this time. However, your feedback is important to us. Please try again later.

Article Sources:

Recommended for You

Common Triggers for Partial Onset Seizures
Common Triggers for Partial Onset Seizures
Learn how alcohol, stress, caffeine, and other factors can bring on a seizure, and also find out why it’s important to track your personal triggers.
Types of Partial Onset Epileptic Seizures
Types of Partial Onset Epileptic Seizures
Learn about the different varieties of partial epileptic seizures, including areas of the body affected and when a larger, generalized seizure may follow.
Seizure Precautions: Safeguarding Your Home
Seizure Precautions: Safeguarding Your Home
If you or a loved one is living with epilepsy, get practical tips for making your home safer to prevent injury in case of an epileptic episode.
13 Celebrities with Epilepsy
13 Celebrities with Epilepsy
Epilepsy has serious effects, but it can be controlled with treatment. Most people with epilepsy live long and normal lives, including these celebrities.
Must-Have Kitchen Tools for People with Rheumatoid Arthritis
Must-Have Kitchen Tools for People with Rheumatoid Arthritis
RA presents many challenges in the kitchen. Protect yourself from burns, scrapes, cuts, and more, and make life easier with these handy tools.
Advertisement
Advertisement
Advertisement