Lymphangitis is an inflammation of the lymphatic system, which is a major component of the immune system. The lymphatic system is a network of organs, cells, ducts, and glands. The glands are also called “nodes” and can be found throughout the body. They are most apparent under the jaw, in the armpits, and in the groin.
Organs that make up the lymphatic system include:
- bone marrow
- thymus, which is a small organ in your upper chest that helps white blood cells develop
Immune cells called lymphocytes mature within the bone marrow and then travel to the lymph nodes and other organs within the lymphatic system to help protect the body against viruses and bacteria. The lymphatic system also filters a whitish-clear fluid called lymph, which contains bacteria-killing white blood cells.
Lymph travels through the body along lymphatic vessels and collects fats, bacteria, and other waste products from cells and tissues. The lymph nodes then filter these harmful materials out of the fluid and produce more white blood cells to fight off the infection.
Lymphangitis occurs when viruses and bacteria invade the vessels of the lymphatic system, typically through an infected cut or wound. There are often tender red streaks going from the wound toward the nearest lymph glands. Other symptoms include fever, chills, and a general sense of illness.
If it’s treated quickly, lymphangitis often goes away with no ill effects. If left untreated, complications can occur, and the condition can become very serious.
Lymphangitis is sometimes mistakenly called “blood poisoning.” It’s also sometimes mistaken for thrombophlebitis, which is a clot in a vein.
Lymphangitis occurs when bacteria or viruses enter the lymphatic channels. They may enter through a cut or wound, or they may grow from an existing infection. The most common cause of lymphangitis is acute streptococcal infection. It may also be the result of a staphylococcal (staph) infection. Both of these are bacterial infections.
Lymphangitis may occur if you already have a skin infection and it’s getting worse. This might mean that bacteria will soon enter the bloodstream. This can cause complications such as sepsis, a life-threatening condition of body-wide inflammation.
Conditions that increase your risk of lymphangitis include:
- immunodeficiency, or loss of immune function
- chronic steroid use
- varicella, or chicken pox
A cat or dog bite or a wound made in fresh water can also become infected and lead to lymphangitis. Gardeners and farmers may develop the condition if they get sporotrichosis, a soil-borne fungal infection.
Red streaks often trace the surface of the skin from the infected area to the nearest lymph gland. They may be faint or very visible and tender to the touch. They may extend from a wound or cut. In some cases, the streaks may blister.
Other symptoms include:
- swollen lymph glands
- malaise, or a general ill feeling
- loss of appetite
- aching muscles
Your doctor will perform a physical exam. They’ll feel your lymph nodes to check for swelling.
Your doctor may also order tests such as a biopsy to reveal the cause of the swelling or a blood culture to see if the infection is present in the blood.
Treatment should begin immediately to keep the condition from spreading. Your doctor may prescribe the following:
- pain medication
- anti-inflammatory medication
- surgery to drain any abscesses that may have formed
- intravenous (IV) antimicrobial therapy, which involves antibiotics given directly into the veins
You can aid healing and ease the pain by applying a hot compress at home. Run hot water over a washcloth or towel and apply it to the tender area. Apply the hot compress three times a day. The warmth will promote blood flow and encourage healing. You can also do this by taking a warm shower and placing the showerhead over the infected area.
If possible, keep the infected area elevated. This helps reduce swelling and slows the spread of infection.
For mild pain relief, you can take over-the-counter acetaminophen or ibuprofen. Ask your doctor about using these drugs if you have liver or kidney disease or if you’ve ever had a stomach ulcer or GI bleeding, such as bleeding in the intestines.
Lymphangitis can spread quickly, leading to complications such as:
- cellulitis, which is a skin infection
- bacteremia, which is bacteria in the blood
- sepsis, which is a body-wide infection that’s life-threatening
- abscess, which is a painful collection of pus that’s usually accompanied by swelling and inflammation
If bacteria enter the bloodstream, the condition is life-threatening. Visit your healthcare provider immediately if you experience any of the following:
- increasing pain or redness at the site of the infection
- growing red streaks
- pus or fluid coming from the lymph node
- fever over 101°F for more than two days
Take antibiotics as prescribed to help prevent complications. Don’t miss a dose, especially in the first few days of treatment.
If no complications occur, most patients make a full recovery. A full recovery may take weeks or months. Swelling and discomfort may be present in the meantime. The amount of time it takes to heal depends on the cause of the condition. Immediate treatment for lymphangitis can help prevent complications.